British American Dating

Nothing beats sarcastic British humour but when it comes to letting loose and poking fun at yourself no one does it better than an American. 12. But don’t forget how Americans date. The term dating in the US means you are going on dates with someone but by no means does it mean you’re exclusive. is a niche dating site where Americans and others seek to date British Men. Log In or Sign Up For Free. King. SamH27, 29. Queen. Cassandra.Louise, 30 FORGOT PASSWORD? Enter your email address below and we'll send you your password reset link. ... For Americans, British dating might not actually seem like dating—not at first, anyway. “Going to the pub is an adequate date,” travel blogger Megan Starr tells Urbo. Starr’s an American, and her partner is British. “This is not considered a date in my world, but he seems to think this is pretty normal. I just go with it.” gives you the opportunity to socialize with like minded people across the pond, but also in the next City or State. Date British Guys is a popular dating site that brings together British men and American women. The folks behind this free site know there’s just something special about that relationship combination — namely because its two founders are an American woman and a British man. This is spot-on when it comes to dating US women, according to Harper’s Bazaar. Whereas British lasses will happily do, eat and drink whatever they want on a date, American women are much more concerned with appearances, and might opt for a dainty meal and maintain politically correct conversation to make the right impression. The Short Version: For many American daters, hearing someone whisper sweet nothings in their ear in a delightful accent can be a major turn-on, and finding a partner with a sexy British accent is usually at the top of their list. If you’re wondering how to connect with people living across the pond without hopping on a plane, has you covered. Dating a British Man is a ten-part series that will take you through the dating ups and downs, it can be considered a guide as what to do — or, what not to do — depending on how you look at it. British men in America American dating british girl. When i was american guys are ten reasons you date a more direct than an american girls overweight has more difficult match. One is things such as a british men on eharmony. Online dating might not easy to dating a girl for dating with rapport. While there, and funny, be warned that seems like dating a blast. British girls are genuine. Unlike American women who may be louder, British girls are generally very quiet. They talk carefully. So when your British lady says, “I love you”, she really means it. Because British women talk less, what they say actually matters more. British ladies are well–mannered. They are polite women. Their second ...

CBS' Love Island

2019.05.23 06:46 GetFreeCash CBS' Love Island

Subreddit for the American version of the British dating reality show Love Island

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Find women for sex and dating tonight at 2015, Why American Women Keep Falling for British Dudes for dating and sex tonight.Two American mothers, one a former prosecutor, are touring British schools to re-educate British boys about sex.Meet thousands of beautiful single women online seeking men for dating, love, ... I am an emerging Artist and Painter living in the South West of the UKexactly what it says on the tin.

2020.09.23 12:12 Acyts Request for book recommendations

I am a nursing student in the UK. We don't get taught any anatomy, physiology or pharmacology as part of the degree, which is devastating! I won't get into how awful this is here, but I am desperate to do the best for my patients and would like some textbooks or literature that is up to date so i can learn. Preferably not ones labelled "for nurses" as I want to learn it properly. It would also be good to have textbooks that are British in case of differences in terminology, however I'm sure this can be worked around if the best ones are in American /Australian /something else terminology.
submitted by Acyts to medicine [link] [comments]

2020.09.23 02:48 normancrane Iris [1/3]

Part 1 <-- You are here.
Part 2 [soon]
Part 3 [soon]


The first person to ever tell me the theory was Iris. It was nighttime in 2015, and we were lying on an old mattress on the roof of a four-storey apartment building in a university town in southern Ontario. A party was going on downstairs to which we’d both been invited and from whose monotony we’d helped each other escape through an ordinary white door that said “No entrance”. It was summer. I remember the heat waves and the radiating warmth of the asphalt. Our semester was over and we had started existing until the next one started in the way all students exist when they don’t spend their months off at home or touring Europe. I could feel the bass thumping from below. I could see the infinite stars in the cloudless sky. The sound seemed so disconnected from the image. Iris and I weren’t dating, we were just friends, but she leaned toward me on the mattress that night until I could feel her breathing on my neck, and, with my eyes pointed spaceward, she began: “What if…”
Back then it was pure speculation, a wild fantasy inspired by the THC from the joint we were passing back and forth and uninhibited by the beer we’d already drunk. There was nothing scientific or even philosophical about Iris’ telling of it. The theory was a flight of imagination influenced by her name and personalized by the genetic defect of her eyes, which her doctors had said would render her blind by fifty. Even thirty-five seemed far away. It’s heartbreaking now to know that Iris never did live to experience her blindness—her own genetic fate interrupted by the genetic fate of the world—but that night, imagination, the quality Einstein called more important than knowledge, lit up both our brains in synapses of neon as we shared our joint, sucking it into glowing nothingness, Iris paranoid that she’d wake up one morning in eternal darkness despite the doctors’ assurances that her blindness would occur gradually, and me fearing that I would never find love, never share my life with anyone, but soothed at least by Iris’ words and her impossible ideas because Einstein was right, and imagination is magical enough to cure anything.

2025, Pre-

I graduated with a degree in one field, found a low paying job in another, got married, worked my way to slightly better pay, wanted to have a child, bought a Beagle named Pillow as a temporary substitute, lived in an apartment overlooking a green garbage bin that was always full of beer cans and pizza boxes, and held my wife, crying, when we found out that we couldn’t have children. Somewhere along the way my parents died and Kurt Schwaller, a physicist from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, proved a grand theory of everything that rather than being based on the vibrations of strings, was based on a property of particles called viscous time force. I never understood the details. To me they lacked imagination. The overriding point, the experts on television told us, was that given enough data and computing power we could now predict the outcome of anything. The effect was that no one wanted to study theoretical physics and everyone wanted to make breakthroughs in data collection systems and biological hardware. Hackers created a version of Linux that ran from DNA. Western Digital released the first working holographic storage drive. The NSA, FSB, BND and other agencies rushed to put their suddenly valuable mass of unprocessed raw spy data to prognostic use. A Chinese bookmaker known only by the nick ##!! wrote a piece of Python code that could predict the outcomes of hockey games. Within a month, the NHL and KHL were scrambling to come up with ways of saving their leagues by making them more unpredictable. They introduced elements of chance: power plays without penalties, a tilting ice surface, fluctuating rules that sometimes allowed for icings and offsides and sometimes not, and, finally, a pre-game lottery by which the names of the players on both teams were put into a pot and randomly drawn into two squads. Given enough variables, the strategy did thwart the code, but the inherent unfairness of the innovations alienated the players, the draft made owners question why they were paying the salaries of superstars who played against them half of the time, and the fans simply stopped paying attention to a league full of teams for which their already dwindling loyalty had bottomed out. Besides, the code was basic. ##!! had room to expand. The KHL folded first, followed by the NHL, and then the other sports leagues, preemptively. They didn’t bother to wait until their own codes were broken. I remember seeing an interview with ##!! while this was still front page news. The reporter, a perpetually smiling big-breasted blonde with blindingly white teeth, asked him if he thought that hockey could be rescued by the creation of roving blue lines that would continually alter the relative sizes of both offensive zones and the neutral zone. ##!! answered that he didn’t know what a blue line was because he’d never watched a hockey game in his life. His voice was cold, objective, and there was something terrifyingly inhuman about the idea that a person with no knowledge of a subject could nevertheless understand it so completely. Content had become a mere input of form.
By 2025, mainstream interest in the theory of everything faded, not because the theory was wrong but because it was too right and too abstract and now there weren’t any young theoretical physicists to help explain it using cute graphics on YouTube. We consumed what we understood and passively accepted the fallout while going on with our daily lives. The people who did understand made money, but for the rest of us the consequences were less than their potential, because even with enough time, memory and microprocessors the most we could know was the what and the when, not the why. For the governments and corporations pouring taxes and tax-free earnings into complex models of world domination, that didn’t matter. They weren’t interested in cause. They were in the business of exploiting certainty to gain power. As long as they could predict lightning, they were satisfied. If they could make it, all the better. Away from the cutting edge, however, like ants or ancients, what we craved to know was where the lightning came from, what it meant, and on that issue the theory was silent. As Kurt Schwaller put it in a speech to the United Nations, “All I’ve given you is a tool—a microscope to magnify the minutes, so to speak—with which to investigate in perfect detail the entirety of our interrelations. But the investigations still have to made, ladies and gentlemen. Have a hay stack, look for the needle. Know there might not be one.”
In January, my wife and I began a fertility treatment for which we’d been saving for years. It was undoubtedly the reason we became so emotionally involved in the media attention around Aiko, the lovely, black-haired and fashionable Crown Princess of Japan, who along with her husband was going through the same ordeal that we were. For a few months, it seemed as if the whole world sat on the edges of its seat, wishing for this beautiful royal couple to conceive. And we sat on two, our own and one somewhere in an exotic Japan updated by the royal Twitter feed. It strikes me now that royalty has always fascinated the proles, a feeling that historically went in tandem with hatred, respect or awe, but it was the Japanese who held our attentions the longest and the most genuinely in the twenty-first century, when equality had more or less rendered a hereditary ruling class obsolete. The British declared themselves post-Christian in 2014 and post-Royal in 2021, the European Court of Justice ruled all other European royals invalid in 2022, and the Muslim monarchs pompously degraded themselves one-by-one into their own exiles and executions. Only the Japanese line survived, adapting to the times by refusing to take itself seriously on anything but the most superficial level. They dressed nicely, acted politely and observed a social protocol that we admired without wanting to follow it ourselves. Before he died, my father had often marvelled that the Second World War began with Japan being led by an emperor god, and ended with the American occupation forcing him to renounce his divinity. The Japanese god had died because MacArthur willed it and Hirohito spoke it. Godhood was like plaque. If your mother told you to brush your teeth, off it went, provided you used the right flavour of Colgate. Kings had once ruled by divine right. By 2025, the Crown Princess of Japan ruled our hearts merely by popular approval. She was our special friend, with whom we were all on intimate and imaginary terms. Indeed, on the day she died—on the day they all died—Princess Aiko’s was the most friended account on Facebook.
That’s why March 27, 2025, was such a joyous occasion for us. In hindsight, it’s utterly sick to associate the date with happiness of any kind, but history must always be understood in context, and the context of the announcement was a wirelessly connected world whose collective hopes came suddenly true to the jingle of a breaking news story on the BBC. I was in the kitchen sauteing onions when I heard it. Cutting them had made me cry and my eyes were still red. Then the announcer’s voice broke as he was setting up his intro, and in a video clip that was subsequently rebroadcast, downloaded and parodied close to a billion times in the one hundred thirty-two days that followed, he said: “The Crown Princess of Japan is pregnant!”
I ran to the living room and hugged my wife, who’d fallen to her knees in front of the wall-mounted monitor. Pillow was doing laps on and off the sofa. The BBC cut away from the announcer’s joyful face to a live feed from Japan. As I held my wife, her body felt warm and full of life. The top of her jeans cut into her waist. Her tears wetted the top of my shirt sleeve. Both of our phones started to buzz—emails and Twitter notifications streaming in. On the monitor, Aiko and her husband, both of their angular faces larger than life in 110” 16K, waved to the crowd in Tokyo and the billions watching around the world. They spoke in Japanese and a woman on the BBC translated, but we hardly needed to know her exact words to understand the emotions. If them, why not also us? I knew my wife was having the same thought. We, too, could have a family. Then I smelled burning oil and the pungency of onions and I remembered my sauteing. I gently removed my arms from around my wife’s shoulders and ran back to the kitchen, still listening to Aiko’s voice and its polite English echo, and my hands must have been shaking, or else my whole body was shaking, because after I had turned down the heat I reached for the handle of the frying pan, knocked the pan off the stove top instead, and burned myself while stupidly trying to catch it before it fell, clattering, to the floor. The burned onions splattered. I’d cracked one of the kitchen tiles. My hand turned pale and I felt a numbness before my skin started to overflow with the warmth of pain. Without turning off the broadcast, my wife shooed me downstairs to the garage where we kept our car and drove me to the hospital.
The Toronto streets were raucous. Horns honked. J-pop blared. In the commotion we nearly hit a pedestrian, a middle-aged white woman pushing a baby carriage, who’d cut across Lake Shore without looking both ways. She had appeared suddenly from behind a parked transport—and my wife instinctively jerked the car from the left lane to the right, scraping our side mirror against the truck but saving two lives. The woman barely noticed. She disappeared into a crowd of Asian kids on the other side of street who were dancing to electronica and waving half a dozen Japanese flags, one of which was the Rising Sun Flag, the military flag of Imperial Japan. Clutching my wrist in the hope it would dull the pain in my hand, I wondered how many of them knew about the suffering Japanese soldiers had inflicted on countless Chinese in the name of that flag. To the right, Lake Ontario shone and sparkled in the late afternoon light. A passenger jet took off from Toronto Island Airport and climbed into the sky.
In the hospital waiting room, I sat next to a woman who was reading a movie magazine with Nuri Bilge Ceylan’s face on the cover. The Cannes film festival was coming up. My wife checked me in at the reception desk. The woman beside me put down her magazine and told me that she was there with her son, as if needing to justify her presence. I affirmed by nodding. He’d hurt his leg playing soccer for a local Armenian junior boys team, she went on. I said I’d hurt myself frying onions and that I was here with my wife. She said my wife was pretty and asked if I liked movies. Without meaning to do it, I tried to guess her age—unsuccessfully—and proceeded to imagine having doggy style sex with her. She had dark eyes that barely blinked and plump thighs. When I started to feel guilty, I answered her question: sometimes I watched movies at home, but I hadn’t been to a theatre in a decade. When my wife sat down, I let the two of them talk about the woman’s son. I was having trouble concentrating. I took my phone out of my pocket and read all the new emails about the royal conception, then stared at the seconds hand going slowly around its digital clock face on my home screen, wondering why we so often emulated the limitations of analogue machines on devices that were no longer bound by them. I switched my clock type to a digital readout. Now the seconds no longer rotated but flickered away. They called my name over the crackling intercom and a nurse led me to one of the empty rooms. “How about that baby,” he said while we walked. I didn’t see his face, only the shaved back of his head. “The things they can do these days, even for infertile couples.”
I waited for over thirty minutes for a doctor. When one came in, she inspected my hand for less than ten seconds before telling me that I was fine and hinting that I shouldn’t have wasted her time by coming to the emergency room. She had high cheek bones, thin lips and bony wrists. Her tablet had a faux clipboard wallpaper. Maybe I had only misinterpreted her tone. “How about that baby,” I said.
“It’s not a baby yet,” she answered.
This time her tone was impossible to misinterpret. I was only repeating what the nurse had said, I told myself. But I didn’t say that to her. Instead, I imagined her coming home at night to an empty apartment, furnished possibly in a minimalistic Japanese or Swedish style, brewing a cup of black coffee and settling into an armchair to re-read a Simone de Beauvoir novel. I was about to imagine having sex with her when I caught hold of myself and wondered what was up with me today.
When I got back to the waiting room, my wife was no longer there—but the Armenian woman was. She pointed down the hall and told me a room number. She said that sometime after I left, my wife had gotten a cramp and started to vomit all over the floor. Someone was still mopping up. The other people in the waiting room, which was filling up, gave me tactfully dirty looks, either because I was with the vomiter or because I’d shirked my responsible by being away during the vomiting. Irrationally, I wiped my own mouth and fled down the hall.
Inside the numbered room, my wife was sitting hunched over on an observation bed, slowly kicking her feet back and forth. “Are you OK?” I asked.
“Come here,” she said.
I did, and sat beside her on the bed. I repeated my question. She still smelled a little of vomit, but she looked up at me like the world’s luckiest puppy, her eyes big and glassy, and said, “Norman, I’m pregnant.”
That’s all she could say—
That’s all either of us could say for a while.
We just sat there on the examination bed like a pair of best friends on a swing set after dark, dangling our feet and taking turns pulling each other closer. “Are you sure?” I finally asked. My voice was hoarse. I sounded like a frog.
“Yes.” She kicked the heel of my shoe with the rubber toe of hers. “We’re going to have a baby.”
It was beautiful. The most wonderful moment of my life. I remembered the day we met and our little marriage ceremony. I thought about being a father, and felt positively terrified, and about being a better husband, and felt absolutely determined, and as I kissed my wife there in the little hospital room with its sterile green walls, I imagined making love to her. I kept imagining it as we drove back to the apartment through partying Toronto streets. “Not since the Maple Leafs won the Stanley Cup!” the radio announcer proclaimed—before I turned him off. I also turned off my phone and my wife’s phone. No more buzzing. In the underground parking lot, I leaned over and licked her soft neck. I pushed her through the open apartment door and straight into the living room, onto the sofa, and wished I could be the cushions beneath her thighs and the air invading her lungs. Pillow barked a greeting and wagged her tail. The monitor on the wall showed talking heads and fertility experts. I unbuttoned my wife’s blouse. She unbuckled my belt. The picture on the monitor dissolved to a close-up of Aiko’s smiling face. My wife and I took turns sliding off each other’s jeans. I kissed her bare stomach. She ran her hands through my hair. I dimmed the lights. We made love.
When we were done it was starry nighttime. My wife bandaged my hand. We turned off the television. The silence was refreshing because people on television too often talk like they’re trying to push you off a ledge. My wife excused me from the duty of making supper because of my ineptness with the frying pan, and handed me a leash instead. I hooked it up to Pillow’s collar and took her outside. While she peed, I gazed up at the sky and identified the Big Dipper. It and the Little Dipper were the only constellations I could identify without using a smartphone app. After Pillow finished, we ducked into a nook and I peed, too. The March sky was amazingly clear of smog. My urine splashed on the concrete and I felt embarrassingly primal. I breathed in, shook out the last drops and zipped up.
In the apartment, we ate grilled portabella mushrooms topped with parmesan and parsley and drank brown rice tea. My wife had changed into fresh clothes. I had changed into fresh skin. Every time she said “mom” and “dad”, the words discharged trickles of electricity up and down my peripheral nervous system. We were happy; we were going to have a baby. The whole world was happy; the Crown Princess of Japan of was going to have a baby. The sounds of drunken urban celebrations drifted in through our bedroom window all night like fog, and we barely slept.

2025, Post-

Gold is precious because it’s rare. Now close your eyes and imagine that the next time you open them, everything in your world will be golden: your kitchen table, the bananas you bought on the way home from work yesterday, your bottle of shampoo, even your teeth. Now blink. You’re not alone. The market’s flooded. Gold isn’t rare anymore. It’s everywhere. Which means that it’s worth about as much as its weight in mud, because there’s nothing intrinsically good about gold. Can you write on your gold table? It scratches. Surely you can’t eat your golden fruit. Your shampoo’s not a liquid anymore, so your hair’s already starting to get greasy. And if you do find something to eat that’s not made of metal, how long will those gold teeth last before you grind them into finely polished nubs?
For two days the Earth glittered.
For two days we lived in a daze of perfection.
And then, on March 29, a researcher working with lab mice at Stanford University noticed something odd. All of his female mice were pregnant. He contacted several of his colleagues who were also working with mice, rats, and monkeys. All their female animals were pregnant, too. Some of the colleagues had wives and girlfriends. They took innocent-seeming trips to their local pharmacies and bought up all the available pregnancy tests. At home, women took test after test and all of them showed positive. By midnight, the researchers had drafted a joint letter and sent copies of it to the major newspapers in their countries. On the morning of March 30, the news hit.
When I checked my Twitter feed after breakfast, #impregtoo was already trending. Throughout the day, Reddit lit up with increasingly bizarre accounts of pregnancies that physically couldn’t be but, apparently, were. Post-menopausal women, celibate women, prepubescent girls, women who’d had their uteruses removed only to discover that their reproductive systems had spontaneously regenerated like the severed tales of lizards. Existing early stage pregnancies aborted themselves and re-fertilized, like a system rebooting. Later term pregnancies developed Matryoshka-like pregnancies nested within pregnancies. After a while, I stopped reading, choosing to spend time with my wife instead. As night fell, we reclined on the sofa, her head on my chest, Pillow curled up in our tangle of feet, the television off, and the streets of Toronto eerily quiet save for the intermittent blaring of far off sirens, as any lingering doubts about the reality of the situation melted away like the brief, late season snow that floated gently down from the sky, blackening the streets.
On March 30, the World Health Organization issued a communique confirming that based on the available data it was reasonable to assume that all female mammals were pregnant. No cause was identified. It urged any woman who was not pregnant to step forward immediately. Otherwise, the communique offered no guidance. It indicated merely that the organization was already working with governments around the world to prepare for a massive influx of human population in approximately nine months’ time. Most places, including Toronto, reacted with stunned panic. Non-essential workplaces and schools were decried closed. People were urged to stay indoors. Hospitals prepared for possible complications. A few supermarkets ran out of canned food and there were several bank runs, but nothing happened that the existing systems couldn’t handle. Populations kept their nerve. Highway and air traffic increased slightly as people rushed to be with their friends, families and gynaecologists. We spent the entire day in our apartment and let Pillow pee in the tub. Except for the conspiracy theorists, who believed that the Earth was being cosmically pollinated by aliens, most of us weren’t scared to go outside, but we were scared of the unknown, and we preferred to process that fear in the comfort of our own dens.
The New York Times ran a front page editorial arguing for an evaluation of the situation using Kurt Schwaller’s theory of everything. In conjunction with The Washington Post, The Guardian and The Wikipedia Foundation, a website was set up asking users for technical help, monetary donations and the sharing of any surplus computing power.
The project quickly ran into problems. To accurately predict anything, the theory of everything needed sufficient data, and, on April 2, published a series of leaked emails between the French Minister of Health and a high-ranking member of World Health Organization that proved the latter’s communique had been disingenuous at best. Externally, the World Health Organization had concluded that all female mammals were pregnant. That remained true. However, it had failed to admit an even more baffling development: the wombs of all female mammals had inexplicably become impenetrable to all rays and materials that had so far been tried against them. For all intents and purposes, there was no way to see inside the womb, or to destroy it. The only way to revert the body to its natural form, to terminate the pregnancy, was to kill the woman—an experiment that, according to the high-ranking member of the World Health Organization, the French government had helped conduct on unwilling women in Mali. Both parties issued repeated denials until a video surfaced showing the murders. I couldn’t bring myself to watch it. They spun their denials into arguments about the necessity of sacrificing lives for the greater good.
Reminded once again of the deception inherent in politics, many turned to religion, but the mainstream religions were hesitant to react. They offered few opinions and no answers. The fringe religions split into two camps. Some leaders welcomed this development, the greatest of all known miracles, while others denounced the same as a universal and unnatural punishment for our collective sins of hedonism, egoism and pride. The most successful of all was the Tribe of Akna, a vaguely mystical Maya revival cult that sprang up seemingly overnight and was led by a Guatemalan freelance programmer named Salvador Abaroa. Although it originated in Mexico City, the Tribe spread as quickly across the world as the computer viruses that Abaroa was notorious for creating. On the Tribe’s homepage, Abaroa could be seen striking an antique brass gong and saying in Spanish-tinged English, “Like energy, life is never destroyed. Every one of us plays an integral part of the cosmic ecosystem. Every man, woman and virus.” Elsewhere on the website, you could buy self-published theological textbooks, listen to scratchy recordings of speeches by Alan Watts and read about the hypothesis that Maya thought was deeply connected to Buddhism because the Mayans had crossed the Pacific Ocean and colonized Asia.
But despite the apparent international cooperation happening at the highest levels, the first week of April was an atomizing period for the so-called people on the ground. We hunkered down. Most personal communication was digital. My wife and I exchanged emails with her parents and sister, but we met no one face-to-face, not even on Skype. We neither invited our neighbours to dinner nor were invited by them, despite how easy it was to walk down the hall and knock. I read far more than I wrote, and even when I did write, responding to a blog post or news story, I found it easier to relate to strangers than to the people I knew. My wife said I had a high tolerance for solitude. “Who do you know in the city?” she asked. Although we’d been living here together for three years, she still considered Toronto mine. She was the stranger, I was the native. I said that I knew a few people from work. She told me to call one of them I’d never called before. I did, and the next day’s sky was cloudless and sunny and there were five of us in the apartment: my wife and I, my friend Bakshi and his wife Jacinda, and their daughter, Greta. Greta drank apple juice while the rest of us drank wine, and all five of us gorged ourselves on freshly baked peach cobbler, laughing at silly faces and cracking immature jokes. It hardly registered for me that the majority of the room was unstoppably pregnant, but wasn’t that the point: to forget—if only for a few hours? Instead of watching the BBC, we streamed BDRips of Hayao Miyazaki movies from The Pirate Bay. Porco Rosso ruled the skies, castles flew, a Catbus arrived at its magical stop. Then Bakshi’s phone rang, and he excused himself from the table to take the call. When he returned, his face was grey. “What’s the matter?” Jacinda asked him. He was still holding the phone to his ear. “It’s Kurt Schwaller,” he said. “They just found his body. They think he killed himself.”
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2020.09.23 01:18 Valiant_Storm Naval Treaties in the KRTL

Would any analouge to the interwar naval arms control treaties exist? Because, OTL, a lot of really ambitious post-WWI designs were canceled because of the Capital Ship Holiday (the N3 battleships and G3 battlecruisers in Britain, the Kii-class and Number 13 battlships in Japan, a full class of Lexington-class battlecruisers in the U.S.).
Subsequently, the 35,000 ton displacement limit for capital ships meant the expansion of vessels beyond the upper end of what was used in WW1 was pretty much halted until the Axis states effectively left the treaty, and the Americans and British activated the Escalator Clause.
So, my conclusion is that, without a treaty limitation, battleships would be much larger than they were OTL - The Number 13 battleships had a normal displacement of 47,500, though I'm not sure how this scales compared to the totally arbitrary metric of treaty 'standard' displacement. An arms race with ships of this scale might have bankrupted the nations involved (especially Japan), but it would seem no one thought they could afford not to make the attempt.
Now, the question is, would there be any naval arms control treaties in the KRTL.
The Commune of France and the UoB almost certainly wouldn't sign anything, as they are, to my knowledge, more explicitly belligerent than the OTL Soviet Union - I'm not sure they diplomatically recognize non-socialist countries. Moreover, the description of their naval focuses seem to indicate that they largely disregard naval military development.
Russia has spent the base decade and a half being slightly on fire, and as such is probably in no condition to conduct a major naval buildup.
The Entante Powers likely are more capacity-limited than anything else in their naval development - they build as much as they can, which isn't much. They might be interested in arms control which restricts other less-limited nations more, a la the OTL IJN Treaty Faction, but if the TI is uninterested, they probably stand to gain very little.
The United States would certainly be in a position to build as much as Congress would permit prior to 1925. This would almost certainly include at least finishing the 1916 Naval Act construction, especially given the British were posing to free navigation with their torpedoing of neutral humanitarian vessels (unless that's been retconed) which would mean 6 Lexingtons finished as ~45,000 ton battlecruisers in the early 20s, as well as probably 10 of the 1920 South Dakota class design, which as in a similar weight range. Assuming construction starts in 1916, production would be at least half finished by the Peace With Honor (the earliest possible date for negotiations to begin on arms control with Germany), as there was no point where military priority would shift toward the ground forces for a US entry into WWI/WK1.
Germany, at least, would likely be in a position to build a response, which would necessitate a set of battleships at least 10,000 tons larger than the Bayern class, if not in the ~50,000 ton range, to ensure superiority over the Americans. If construction of such vessels was impossible while the British blockade remained in effect (which does not seem unexpected) they'd likely be hesitant to negotiate any treaty which does not at least allow them to at minimum achieve numerical and qualitative parity with the USN. This gives at least two major fleets with capital ships in the 45,000-50,000+ ton range.
The Japanese need to at least attempt to match this, as both the US and Germany are potential adversaries in China and South-East Asia. This probably means going ahead with the Number 13 ships which are presently in-game as Dreadnought hulls.
The British might lay down all for Admiral Class ships before the 1925 revolution, but losing the war might give them other priorities.
And then you have another 15 years of buildup after that, with the scope growth that implies. So one would expect that, if Japan intends to hold to its policy of qualitative superiority, it would have to at least attempt something like the Yammaoto significantly earlier to gain an advantage over the post-Weltkrieg 'common' displacement. And maybe the A-150 design in the mid-30s.
TL;DR: Interwar Naval Treaties in the KRTL, if they exist, likely limit ships to being somewhat larger than OTL based on US Weltkrieg-era construction. If no treaties exist, the real superbattleships would be true monsters. Also this would be a great way of crashing the Japanese government with no survivors, since the lore seems to imply that happened.
This analysis is in no way motivated reasoning aiming to satisfy my desire six figure displacement warships.
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2020.09.23 00:03 normancrane [A Dwarf Stood At The Door] - Chapter 1

I’m a nervous person. I took up smoking to stop biting my nails. It didn’t work, and now I have two bad habits. Usually I don’t even have a reason for the biting, I just get anxious and chewing off bits of myself calms me down. It’s vaguely cannibalistic. My wife hates it. She used to check my hands before bed and then refuse to have sex with me if I didn’t pass the inspection. I can live without sex, but not without biting my nails or smoking. She thinks I cheated on her. She also thinks I’m a coward, but in her defence she has no idea that I saved her life. Right now she’s asleep because it’s three in the morning, and I’m out on the balcony having a cigarette and trying to figure out the best way to confess to a crime. The thing that keeps distracting me is the moon. It’s as yellow as my dentist says my teeth are going to be if I don’t stop with the cigarettes. Frankly I think drinking coffee is worse for discolourations than smoking, but whatever. My thesis sponsor says I pepper my casual writing with slang to balance the rigidity of my academic prose. She calls it my “learned” prose. I call it my thecal style.
Anyway, I’m getting off topic. I was describing the yellowness of the moon. Tom Waits has a good line about it being the colour of a coffee stain, and that’s about right. The night’s bright as far as nights go but that moon keeps staring at me like a jaundiced eyeball. I should have had a drink before coming out here. I’d go in and get one but I’m afraid I’ll wake my wife, and she’ll blink and her hair will look like a leafless winter tree surrounding a Grumpy Cat face. That’s a proper noun, Grumpy Cat. It has its own Wikipedia page, like Napoleon and Georg Hegel. The article starts: “Tardar Sauce (April 4, 2012 – May 14, 2019), nicknamed Grumpy Cat, was an American Internet celebrity cat. She was known for her permanently 'grumpy' facial appearance, which was caused by an underbite and feline dwarfism.” Keep that in mind when you read my confession because it’s a crazy fucking world we live in.
My thesis sponsor says I never make sufficiently elegant segues. She says my paragraphs are too long and that my conclusions come at the reader out of nowhere like argumental hyenas. I’m surrounded by difficult women. I’m reconsidering my confession, but that moon keeps reflecting its piss coloured light at me and I’m sick of just writing my thesis, sentence by footnoted sentence. Theses. It even sounds vile. If any of my neighbours are watching they probably think I’m ridiculous sitting out here in my boxers and bathrobe, smoking cigarette after cigarette and typing on a laptop, but in my defence it’s the twenty-first century and this is how twenty-first century murderers let it all out. I used to think it ridiculous that anyone could say the moon is made of cheese, but now I kind of get it. I’m hungry and I have a heavy heart. Two days ago I overpowered a level twenty-six dwarf, stabbed it in the neck, beat it with a shovel and sliced open its throat before transferring what remained of its body to a 3.5” diskette that Wayne and I secretly uploaded to a computer in the library.
Wayne’s my best friend and accomplice. He owns a little computer repair shop in town that I spend time in whenever my wife gets her Grumpy Cat face, and that’s where I’ll start my confession.
It was a Monday afternoon and some guy came in with an old IBM Thinkpad that he’d bought off Ebay and that he wanted Wayne to fix. “What’s the problem?” Wayne asked.
“BIOS doesn’t work,” the guy said.
Wayne booted the laptop and the BIOS was password protected. “What’s the password?”
“How should I know? That’s why I came here,” the guy said.
“What am I supposed to do?” Wayne asked.
“Hack that shit.”
Wayne traded him a newer, shittier used Dell for it and the guy signed a contract and walked out happy.
I asked Wayne what he was going to do with the Thinkpad.
“Sell it,” he said. “To someone who doesn’t know what a BIOS is, for more than I paid for that Dell.”
Wayne could do that, make money while making two people happy. I didn’t have that kind of business sense. My wife said it was because nobody took me seriously the way they took Wayne seriously. I asked her why. She said it was because Wayne had dark, curly hair whereas I had blonde hair that was so thick and straight it made me look boyish and perpetually out of date. “Would you want to be with a guy like Wayne instead of a guy like me?” I asked. “If I could be with a guy like Wayne I never would have married you,” she said.
“Hey, Wayne,” I called out. He was sorting invoices and I was sitting behind a table in the far corner of the store, working on my thesis. He turned around holding a bunch of papers. “Have you ever slept with Annie?”
“No, man.”
“But would you?”
“I might,” he said. “Are you offering?”
I said I wasn’t. He went back to sorting invoices.
My laptop screen flickered.
Wayne started humming the main theme from Super Mario Bros.
My laptop died.
“Hey, Wayne,” I said. “How much do you want for that Thinkpad?”
He read an invoice. “One hundred sixty.”
“I know what a BIOS is,” I said.
“Is yours dead?”
He took the Thinkpad off the counter, walked over to the table I was sitting behind and set the Thinkpad down. “On the house, buddy.”
I picked up my dead laptop. “At least take mine for parts.”
“It’s cool. I did sleep with Annie once. It was before you got married but it’s still probably worth a Thinkpad,” he said.
Wayne’s a pretty good guy and I didn’t care about the BIOS. I just wanted something with metal hinges that I could write on. I didn’t even need a hard drive because I ran Puppy Linux off a USB stick and saved all my files to Dropbox. My thesis sponsor didn’t think that was possible. When I plugged my USB stick into her desktop’s USB port and booted entirely into her RAM, she said, “Why did you make my Windows lose its pleasant appearance?”
I never should have booted that Thinkpad.
It had a USB port but the boot order was apparently hard drive first, so I booted into Windows XP and explored the file structure for a while because it was a form of procrastination that didn’t weigh on my conscience. There wasn’t much installed.
“You should wipe the drive before you do anything,” Wayne said.
I went down the list of directories in Windows Explorer. It looked pretty much like a fresh install. Other than the operating system, the laptop also had an old version of Office and an anti-virus suite installed. I changed the views options in Explorer to what I liked: detailed view and show hidden files checked on. “By the way, what are the specs on that thing?” Wayne asked.
“Hang on,” I said. Something had caught my eye. There was a hidden directory in root filled with text documents numbered from one to sixty-four. I opened the first. It held a single character. e. I opened the next. 8. I opened a few more at random and the contents of those were single characters, too. “Wayne,” I said.
“There’s a hidden folder in C: and it has sixty-four text files with a number or letter in each.”
Wayne put down his invoices. “Exactly sixty-four?”
“Yeah,” I said. I noticed something else. “And it’s strange, because the creation dates of the files are all exactly two months apart.”
“That’s like a span of ten years.”
Nothing else on the hard drive caught my eye.
“It could be the BIOS password,” Wayne said. “Those get up to sixty-four characters long.” He scratched his chin. “But before you check that, do a search for jpegs. Sometimes people leave naked pics of their wives and girlfriends sitting around.”
“There’s plenty of those online.”
“But those are public, buddy. These would be private, known by only a few people and us.”
There weren’t any photos.
I took out my phone, opened a fresh document and typed in the characters from the numbered files on the Thinkpad hard drive. Then I rebooted and pressed the key to get into the BIOS. A password prompt came up. I entered the sixty-four characters staring at me from my phone screen and hit Enter. Bingo. Wayne was waiting for a response. “We’re in,” I said.
Except we weren’t in.
The screen had become a black command prompt. “Wait, I think the BIOS is broken,” I said.
Wayne came over to take a look.
He hit a button.
Welcome, adventurer. What is your name? 
“The fuck?”
Wayne hit another key.
Error. Name cannot be blank. Welcome, adventurer. What is your name? 
“It looks like some kind of role-playing game,” I said, stating the obvious.
“Reboot again,” Wayne said.
I did. The text disappeared, the hard drive whirred, and when the Thinkpad returned to life it booted straight to the same command prompt and the same line of text without even asking for the password.
“Does it boot off a USB?” Wayne asked.
“It didn’t before,” I said. But I tried it anyway. No luck. The screen turned off, turned on and then we were back at:
Welcome, adventurer. What is your name? 
We tried booting off a CD.
Welcome, adventurer. What is your name? 
“Well, that’s a useless piece of junk,” Wayne said.
So much for writing my thesis.
“Have you ever seen anything like this before?” I asked.
“Never, bud.”
“What do you think it is?”
“I don’t know. But keeping in mind I’m not a technician, just a guy who sells used computers and sometimes installs Skype and Acrobat Reader for people who type with one finger, I’d say the thing’s been set to boot off a device with some sort of game on it.”
“You mean we set it to that,” I said. “Because it booted from the hard drive before.”
“By typing in the password?”
“I guess.”
“Then either we changed the boot order without knowing it or this is the BIOS,” Wayne said. “Type something in. See what happens.”
I dangled my fingers over the keyboard, trying to think of a good name for an adventurer.
Wayne cleared his throat.
I typed in John, and quickly followed with Grousewater.
John Grousewater, an envoy from his excellency, Prince Verbamor of the Principality of Xynk, has arrived at the door of your remote stone hut. The envoy tells you that the Prince requests an immediate audience with you. Do you accept? yes 
The screen flashed white, then beeped a midi theme and displayed a white-on-black title screen baring the words “Xynk: An Interactive Quest”. Below were the names of its two developers, Tim Birch and Olaf Brandywine. I hit a key. A pixelated horse began to inch its way across a pixelated mountainous landscape.
The Principality of Xynk is on the other side of the world. Your journey was long and treacherous. 
“How old is this?” Wayne asked.
The screen flashed and a bolt of lightning appeared above the mountains.
But finally you made it. 
“No idea,” I said.
The landscape disappeared, replaced by the command prompt.
After paying for two nights of lodgings at THE YAWNING MASK, you pat your trusty horse, NIGEL, and make your way on foot to the massive structure that looms over the entirety of the city-state of Xynk, the famous CASTLE MOTHMOUTH. [OB: almost done intro description, will add soon] “I have summoned you, John Grousewater, because your exploits are known throughout the land. As you see, Xynk is in grave danger and needs your help. The enemy is already within. Only a reversal of the spell using the very same AMULET OF VERMILLION will thwart the evil plans of the HOODED RAT BROTHERHOOD and save us. Only you possess the ability to locate the amulet somewhere in Xynk and prepare the ingredients necessary to cast the reversal. John Grousewater, the reward for success will be great. Do you accept the mission?” 
I read through the text twice before realizing that Wayne was looking at me. “Well, do you accept?”
yes Xynk: An Interactive Quest is a text adventure game. It is recommended that before you begin, you read the HELP FILE. To do so now or at any time, type: READ HELP. 
I typed READ HELP.
This is placeholder text [TB: We need a help file asap] 
Wayne pulled up a chair and sat down beside me. “That wasn’t very helpful. You ever played one of these before?”
“I think I know the basics,” I said.
ROOM IN THE YAWNING MASK You are in your room in the Yawning Mask. It’s bare and empty, which suits an adventurer like you just fine. In the room, you see a TABLE and a WINDOW. The only DOOR leads WEST into the HALL. 
“So do your stuff, hot shot. Let’s see what this baby’s all about.”
examine table It’s a wooden table. It’s empty. examine window You walk to the window and look out. A cheap view for a cheap room. You see the ALLEY behind The Yawning Mask. Directly below the window, NIGEL and several other horses are eating feed from a trough. 
Bells dinged as a woman walked into the store. Wayne turned his chair to face her. It made an awful scraping sound. “May I help you?”
“My computer’s broken,” she said.
“What’s wrong with it?”
“I can’t Skype.”
“Is Skype installed?” Wayne asked.
“I don’t really know how to check that,” she said. “It worked yesterday.” Wayne patted me on the shoulder and got up to work his magic at the front counter.
I vaguely heard them talking as I refocused on Xynk.
talk to Nigel Nigel stops drinking for a moment and looks up. He’s the best horse you’ve ever had, and you hope he thinks the same about you. talk to Nigel about Xynk Nigel neighs. 
I’d played Zork once or twice online, so I had a grip on how these games worked. Usually, half the trouble was getting the game to understand what you wanted to do. Half the tedium was reading the same messages over and over again. To remind myself, I typed:
examine room ROOM IN THE YAWNING MASK You are in your room in the Yawning Mask. It’s bare and empty, which suits an adventurer like you just fine. In the room, you see a TABLE and a WINDOW. Someone has slid a NOTE under the door. The only DOOR leads WEST into the HALL. 
A note? I scrolled up to see if that had been in the first description of the room. It hadn’t.
examine note There is no such object. “Go to EAST STORE ROOM in CASTLE MOTHMOUTH” 
That was odd. I tried examining the note again and got the same result, an error message followed by a line of output. So I tried examining a few made-up objects that the game had never mentioned, like a “lantern”.
There is no such object “Go to EAST STORE ROOM in CASTLE MOTHMOUTH” 
examine ipod There is no such object “Go to EAST STORE ROOM in CASTLE MOTHMOUTH” move W YAWNING MASK HALL You are standing in the hall. Your ROOM is to the EAST. A staircase leads DOWN. 
I went down, and navigated my way out of The Yawning Mask after noting on my phone that the Innkeeper seemed like he could be a font of information about Xynk. I’d talk to him later. Now, I made my way through the city toward Castle Mothmouth. I stopped hearing Wayne discuss how to add and remove software in Windows 7 and started hearing the din of Xynk amidst the clicking of the Thinkpad keys. I passed The Pierced Snout Tavern and The Local Alchemist, peeked into The Library, and noted the names of all the various neighbourhoods that the command prompt threw at me. Although some of the descriptions in the game were unfinished, most were sparsely vivid and the world itself was detailed and huge. Xynk was a living and breathing place, at least as real as a text-based San Andreas.
At some point, Wayne scraped his chair and sat beside me again. “How’s the adventure going, Grousewater?” he asked.
“I’m following what the note said and going to Castle Mothmouth.”
“Or you could work on your thesis.”
I smirked. “Thanks, Annie.”
Then I remembered that Wayne had slept with her before I ever had, and the thought made me jealous.
“Seriously, buddy. I’m all about wasting time playing video games, but the ones I play usually have graphics and guns, and don’t you have a meeting with your whatever-her-name is at the university in like two days?”
I did. I sighed.
save Command unknown. Type HELP FILE for help. save game Command unknown. Type HELP FILE for help. 
Wayne picked up my phone and read the notes I’d made. “What’s the matter? Did you get shivved by a homeless dude in”—He squinted.—”Vagrant’s Quarter?”
“I don’t know how to save,” I said.
Wayne grabbed the Thinkpad’s power cord and yanked it out of the socket. The Thinkpad shut off. “The bad thing about buying used laptops,” Wayne said, “is that usually their batteries don’t work.”
I was about to reply in a witty fashion when my phone rang—
Wayne tossed it to me.
It was Annie. I accepted the connection. “Hello, honey bun,” I said. “What’s up?”
“Where the hell are you?”
“I’m…” Wayne pointed with his chin at a clock on the wall. “Shit,” I said into the phone. I’d been at Wayne’s for over three hours. How long had I been playing Xynk? It didn’t seem anywhere near that long. My wife launched into an accusatory reminder that I was supposed to pick up a bag of potatoes on the way home and that I was supposed to be home by five, and that it was now almost six, and that the turkey was going to be too dry, and I moved the phone away from my ear and shrugged my shoulders at Wayne despite knowing that my wife was right. “Wherever you are, just get the potatoes and get home now,” she said, and ended the call. It had long ago stopped being a blow to my ego that my wife never suspected me of having an affair.
“I’ve gotta run,” I said to Wayne. I put my phone in my pocket, closed and picked up the Thinkpad, and rolled up and picked up its power cord.
Wayne crossed his arms.
“You should leave that piece of junk here,” he said.
I waved and was out the door.
I bought the potatoes at the nearest grocery store, paying nearly double what I should have because the store catered to the upper middle-class with ceramic tiles and good lighting unlike the immigrant-focused Food Basics I usually shopped at.
I called my wife to tell her the potatoes were on their way, but she didn’t answer. Maybe she was having an affair.
I also kept thinking about the note by the door in John Grousewater’s room in The Yawning Mask. What could possibly be in Castle Mothmouth’s east storage room, and who’d delivered the glitchy message? I’d have to try to talk to the Innkeeper about it. Maybe he saw someone come in.
I pulled into my driveway, put the laptop under my arm, grabbed the bag of potatoes with my hand and went in through the garage. Annie was waiting in the kitchen, playing a match-three fruit game on her tablet. “Nice of you to finally make it,” she said.
I apologized, saying I’d lost track of time working on my thesis.
“At least I don’t have to worry about you having an affair,” she said as she was getting the turkey out of the oven.
It was dry.
After dinner we drank coffee together. I watched her swipe her finger to match bananas, kiwi and watermelons. What if the note is a trap? I thought. It could be from the Hooded Rat Brotherhood. Then again, was the Hooded Rat Brotherhood actually evil? They had a name that sounded evil, but Prince Verbamor seemed shady too. I understood his need to bring in an outsider to solve the quest because the Hooded Rat Brotherhood had infiltrated Xynk’s own police force and Verbamor didn’t know who to trust, but I also remembered an old British horror movie about an outsider who comes to an island to investigate a crime and ends up burned alive in a giant wicker man as part of an elaborate pagan ceremony.
When Annie stopped talking between levels of her mobile game, I got the bright idea to search for Xynk online.
Google search brought up 273,000 matches but none about the Xynk I was looking for. Google Books didn’t yield any fruit either. Although that wasn’t entirely surprising—after all, the game was old and clearly unfinished—there was something inexplicably creepy about anything that existed in the real world without leaving a trace of its existence on the internet. I decided to try Googling the names of the two developers instead.
They did exist.
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2020.09.22 21:27 spectroworld Love Island USA Season 2 Episode 26

Episode 26

Love Island USA Season 2 Episode 26.
American version of the British dating reality competition in which ten singles come to stay in a villa for a few weeks and have to couple up with one another. Over the course of those weeks, they face the public vote and might be eliminated from the show. Other islanders join and try to break up the couples.
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2020.09.22 08:45 quitzonantonietta9 All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story

All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story
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All about the origin of hockey: An interesting story

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Have you ever heard about the origin of hockey? A sport played on hard ground is soccer, basketball, or baseball. For hockey players, pace and stamina need to be paired with being able to play on a broad ice shelf. So what is hockey specific?
Nội dung

What is hockey?

What is Hockey? To us, most of the definitions are relatively new. It’s a sports team content, two teams have been organized to compete. The two teams attempt to enter the opponent’s net with a hockey stick by a puck or a round platter.
When the ball reaches the loss of the opponent, proportionate points are earned. When the ball enters, the opponent’s net will get comparable points.

Hockey on the grass

What is Hockey on the grass? It’s got an English hockey tag. For both men and women, hockey is a universal sport. But this sport typically includes more guys.
Field-hockey matches may be played on the surface of natural or artificial turf or sandy or gravel-covered pitches. Teams use relatively small 73 mm hockey sticks.
This sport typically breaks up into two teams that play the same game of boys and girls or competing girls and women. In the areas of Europe, Asia, and South Africa, hockey is prevalent.

Ice Hockey

Athletes who play ice hockey will practically be tougher than grass hockey. The competitors contesting the two teams’ contents must wear a pair of ice skates to play on the ice. Athletes must put a rubber ball in the net of the opponent with a diameter of 76.2 mm.
Athletes have other abilities, such as expertise on big ice, and strength and stamina, to play well in this material and be able to manage the game themselves.

What is Ice Hockey?

Ice hockey is a variation of hockey. It has a play similar to that of ice hockey. This game will be divided into two pairs to compete directly against each other. Members of the team of 4 players use roller skates to play, and a goalkeeper is tasked to guard the ball from the net.
The game takes place in three main rounds, with each match lasting only 15 minutes. At the end of the three innings, the team with the most goals scored on the other side will be the winner.

History of Hockey

Most games are played with curved sticks, and in many cultures, a ball can be found. Records are from 4,000 years ago of people who are interested in a hockey game.
Legend has it that Man Man Man was a sporting game for himself, he tried to find a sporting match for himself. It collected a stick and placed it on the grass from hockey’s birth to carry a ball-like object.
In Canada and the North of the United States, a style of ice hockey took place on frozen lakes with harsh surfaces and before the invention of skates. Specific forms of rivalry started to emerge in the nineteenth century.
📷Hockey player
When the material of the supply-demand segment emerged, organizations came into being to carry out market laws and regulations.
Among professional athletes, hockey players seem to be the most beautiful. The players ran the winning spirit and saw how courageous they were playing on such a shaky ice base. Their presence looks like a giant ice teddy.
Hockey players make the sport the most appealing game both on and off the ice. If you haven’t believed it before, do you now have a reply to what the hockey idea was? It’s the world’s biggest sport.

The five greatest hockey players of all time

Wayne Gretzky

The only player in the history of the NHL who won 200 points over the season is Wayne Gretzky, which Gretzky has made four achievements in his career. This is a very significant achievement. He has the best score record in 39 matches with 50 goals.
Thanks to his tenure with the Los Angeles Kings, Gretzky has shared his love for hockey in California. He eventually made the Golden State one of America’s fastest-growing hockey sites.

Bobby Orr

Just ten seasons after playing at the NHL, Orr exploits his time by improving a defender’s skills and abilities. Although Doug Harvey is the pioneer in developing the game style to help defenders shine, the concept is brought up to new heights by Orr.
With his fast and safe movements, Orr can slip around the squad, even during the game. He moves around the field. He is the defender norm with records and ample support for an attack.
Orr ‘s impact goes more profound than the ice rink as he leads players to condemn Alan Eagleson’s dishonesty.

Mario Lemieux

In his final season for Laval Voisins, Mario Lemieux scored 282 points in 70 games. In the 1988–1989 season, he had achieved the 200-point mark with 85 goals and 114 aides. Owing to health reasons, his career was interrupted for three years.
One of the best players on the ice will still be remembered for Lemieux. Besides, its reputation has been recognized and appreciated by the Mario Lemieux Society, the foundation that supports cancer research.

Gordie Howe

Howe’s the player in NHL history who scored over 800 goals. “Mr. Hockey ‘s record was also remarkable in the 1980s and when defensemen were allowed to protect themselves against offensive players.
Howe also dominates his time with six MVP titles over a decade. He spent 32 years at the NHL and the World Hockey Association from the end of World War II until the middle of the colder period.

Jaromir Jagr

He has five goals, three titles Lester Pearson (now Ted Lindsay), and one title Hart. He has been given all of a hockey player’s awards. Jaromir Jagr will easily record more than 800 goals in his career with high power, physical strength, and experience if he doesn’t have to play for three years.
At the age of 43, he is still an involved player, and the NHL teams love him most.

Ice hockey: Very elaborate sport

Football will hold a place similar to the ‘King’s sport in the Summer Olympics in the winter Olympics.

Long-term root

There are a variety of hypotheses regarding the origin of hockey, but to date, most agree the sport is still the product of a game called “keritizein” in Ancient Greece. Hockey slowly developed by the British from the end of the eighteenth hundred until it became a single game in its present form.
A match of Hockey on grass
The regular game field must meet the basic specifications of 60.98×30 m, according to the regulations created by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). The rules are straightforward, with the ball entering the opponent’s net for each team of 6 players using skateboards (made of wood, aluminum, or synthetic resin).
The match lasts 60 minutes and is split into three recesses. The team which brings the ball into the net of the adversary will win. The main difference is that there is no time limit and the number of alternatives per game. The half-time break lasts about 15 minutes, about 30 and 17 minutes.

Summer Olympics first run

The first appearance in Belgium of Ice Hockey at the Olympic Summer 1920. From the 2004 Winter Olympics, the study was fully moved into the winter sports program and failed in 2014 before the last Olympic Games were held in Sotchi, Russia.
The major ice-hockey forces in the Olympic arena are considered by seven nations, including Canada, the Czech Republic, Finland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and the USA.
USA Women Hockey team in Olympic
Just 6/64 medals in the men’s composition do not belong to one of the above seven nations. In the women’s games, Olympic and World Championship competitions are still the battle of the “giants” party, and the Canadian and American teams are still in contention for the gold medal.
Ice hockey is thriving today in size and width. It is always cold enough to shape a seasonal ice sheet of total hardness in geographically located regions, for instance, Canada, Finland, the Czech Republic, Russia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. The area is situated in the United States’ northern latitude.
Officially, certain countries such as Canada and other countries of Europe select ice hockey as their winter national sport. The American Professional League (NHL) and the Women’s Federation in Canada (CWHL) will compete in elite North American tournaments.
Tens of thousands of people, hundreds of thousands of followers, are becoming increasingly popular via TV and as omnibus as football.

Conclusion: Hockey – Delicate, not sexy, but sexy

More than 50 percent of hockey players hold the same view that skills compensate for success. The player needs to have excellent balance when riding on a particular shoe (a lot like roller skates, but not wheels on the shoe bottom, but with a metal slice).
To gain motion skills, players must endure a long cycle from watching to training with a firm determination regularly.
Hockey training room
Hockey seen from outside is not a sport which leaves a lovely picture. A players community is playing for a small disk, but often the chaotic collisions on the field cause the audience to feel irritated.
This is not to suggest that many people fear the intense direct opposition. However, these “negative” remarks are reversed instantly while in the place of “insider.”
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2020.09.21 23:30 TheManIsNonStop [Event] The Khaleeji Defense Force

January 2031
In theory, the Armed Forces of Oman, the UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, and Kuwait were merged into a single federal Defense Force (officially, the "Defense Force of the Federated Arab States of the Khaleej", but usually just referred to as the "Khaleeji Defense Force") under the command of the President of the Federated Arab States with the creation of the new Union in 2030.
Unfortunately, it turns out that integrating five armies into a unified command structure is a little more difficult than writing words on a piece of paper. The "unified" Khaleeji Defense Force is anything but, with units still exhibiting loyalty to their old command structures. While units from Oman and Kuwait may theoretically answer to the command structure in Abu Dhabi, in practice, they effectively maintain their own parallel command, administrative, and logistic structures. This, of course, is an absolute disaster waiting to happen if the FAS enter into a serious armed conflict, as it will inhibit the ability of central command to exert its will over its subordinate units, hampering interoperability and making victory more difficult to achieve.
Another major issue in a segregated military structure like this is the segregation of military units by "nationality" (that is, which constituent nation they are from). Kuwaitis only serve with Kuwaitis, Omanis only serve with Omanis, etc. This contributes to the issue of dual power and parallel governance, as it results in soldiers that exhibit loyalties to sub-national entities rather than to the protection of the national entity as a whole. Much like the UAE's Union Defense Forces subsumed the militaries of the individual Emirates in the 2000s, so to must this new military force subsume the militaries of the individual constituent states if it is to become a true fighting force capable of protecting the FAS from threats foreign and domestic.
To rectify this, the Khaleeji Defense Force is set to undergo an all-encompassing series of reforms to unify the command structures, ranks, doctrine, and logistics. The reforms will see the theoretically centralized Defense Force made into an actually centralized Defense Force, with a unified command structure that sees Kuwaitis, Omanis, Bahrainis, Emiratis, and Qataris fight side-by-side in defense of their country, singular. Units will be integrated, outdated equipment will be removed from service, and uniform conscription laws will be implemented throughout the whole of the country's territory. These reforms will be implement over the next three years, concluding in 2034.

The Khaleeji Defense Force

Male FAS nationals will be subjected to mandatory conscription (as is already the case in most of the Arab Gulf States). Men who have finished secondary school will have to serve eighteen months (four months of training, fourteen months of service) with another two years in the reserves, while men who did not finish secondary school will have to serve three years with another two years in the reserves. Reservists (both those who have volunteered for reserve service and those who are doing their mandatory reservist duty) will train one weekend every month and two weeks every December, for a total of 36 days every year. Women are not subjected to the draft, but are welcome to serve in all non-infantry roles in the Khaleeji Defense Force. Service for both sexes is rewarded by a range of benefits from the federal government, including competitive pay, priority hiring for government jobs, and preferred applicant status for housing plots, scholarships, and marriage grants.
Rank Structure
The rank structure of the Khaleeji Defense Force mostly follows the British rank structure. In the tradition of other Arab militaries, enlisted ranks are uniform across all services (that is, an OR-9 is a Warrant Officer across all service branches). The rank structure is laid out as follows:
Commissioned Officer Ranks
NATO Code OF-10 OF-9 OF-8 OF-7 OF-6 OF-5 OF-4 OF-3 OF-2 OF-1
Service Branch
Army No Equivalent Fariq Awwal (General) Fariq (Lieutenant General) Liwa (Major General) Amid (Brigadier) Aqid (Colonel) Muqaddam (Lieutenant Colonel) Ra'id (Major) Naqib (Captain) Mulazim Awwal (Lieutenant) and Mulazim (Second Lieutenant)
Navy No Equivalent Fariq Awwal Bahriin (Admiral) Fariq Bahriin (Vice Admiral) Liwa Bahriin (Rear Admiral) Amid Bahriin (Commodore) Aqid Bahriin (Captain) Muqaddam Bahriin (Commander) Ra'id Bahriin (Lieutenant Commander) Naqib Bahriin (Lieutenant) Mulazim Awwal Bahriin (Sub-lieutenant) and Mulazim Bahriin (Midshipman)
Air Force No Equivalent Fariq Awwal Tayar (Air Chief Marshal) Fariq Tayar (Air Marshal) Liwa Tayar (Air Vice-Marshal) Amid Tayar (Air Commodore) Aqid Tayar (Group Captain) Muqaddam Tayar (Wing Commander) Ra'id Tayar (Squadron Leader) Naqib Tayar (Flight Lieutenant) Mulazim Awwal Tayar (Flying Officer) and Mulazim Tayar (Pilot Officer)
Enlisted Ranks
NATO Code OR-9 OR-8 OR-7 OR-6 OR-5 OR-4 OR-3 OR-2 OR-1
Mosa'id Awwal (Chief Warrant Officer) Mosa'id (Warrant Officer) Raqib Awwal (Staff Sergeant) Raqib (Sergeant) Raqib (Sergeant) Corporal ('Arif) No Equivalent Jondi Awwal (Private First Class) Jondi (Private)

Khaleeji Land Forces

New Structure
The Khaleeji Army (officially the Land Forces) will have a sanctioned strength of 85,000 active duty nationals, to be supplemented by a further 66,000 reservists and 40,000 foreign nationals, divided into four active duty brigades, four reserve brigades, a special operations command (consisting of a ceremonial Life Guards regiment, a special forces brigade, and a battalion-sized elite special forces unit), and the Foreign Legion (comprised of two brigade-sized ground units and a smaller, but still brigade-sized marine regiment).
Regular Army
Brigades in the Khaleeji Land Forces are set to be modeled after the American Brigade Combat Team, consisting of three Combined Arms Battalions (in Mechanized Brigades, this will be two Mechanized Battalions and one Armor Battalion, while in Armored Brigades, it will be one Mechanized Battalion and two Armor Battalions). Both brigades will have roughly 4,500 combat personnel, supported by an additional 12,000 or so personnel, for a total of roughly 16,500 soldiers per BCT.
These brigades will be split between two regional commands. Northern Command, which covers Kuwait (as it is separated from the rest of the country), will have one Armored Brigade, one Mechanized Brigade, and one more of each held in reserve. Central Command, which covers the rest of the country (Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain) will have two Mechanized Brigades, one Armored Brigade, and one Mechanized Brigade and one Armored Brigade held in reserve.
Foreign Legion
The Khaleeji Land Forces will include a Foreign Legion, inherited from the Emirati Foreign Legion created in 2025. However, the Khaleeji Foreign Legion will see some major organizational changes from its Emirati equivalent.
The first are related to the composition of the Legion and its service terms. The current six-year service obligation will be increased to eight years, with legionnaires becoming eligible to apply for citizenship after six years (legionnaires wounded in the line of duty will still receive citizenship immediately). After the initial eight-year service term, legionnaires will have the option to renew for additional four- or six-year terms of service (those who sign up for six years will be paid more than those who signed up for four years). Those who do not sign additional service terms, but are accepted as citizens, will have to serve another two years in the reserves of the regular army (where they will still receive competitive compensation, while also be able to pursue non-military careers outside of their reservist service), where they will make up an experienced core of personnel to build the reserve units around. The sanctioned size of the Foreign Legion will also be increased from 20,000 to 38,000.
The second major change is to its structure. Currently, the Foreign Legion is divided into ten regiments (two armor, four mechanized, one training, one combat engineers, one artillery, one military police, and one marine). To bring the Foreign Legion structure in line with that of the rest of the Land Forces, armor and mechanized regiments will be merged into two Foreign Regiments, with each functioning as a Mechanized Brigade Combat Team. The old regiments, now "battalions," will serve as the Combined Arms core of these largest regiments (so the 2nd Foreign Armor Regiment, rather than being an independent unit, is now the 2nd Foreign Armor Battalion, serving as one of the three combined arms battalions of the 1st Foreign Rifles Regiment). The combat engineer, artillery, and military police regiments will be converted into the support elements for these new regiments (so the 1st Foreign Artillery Regiment will serve as the parent regiment for the artillery units inside of the 1st and 2nd Foreign Rifle Regiments).
The 1st Foreign Marine Regiment will be reorganized to mirror the organization of a United States Marine Corps Marine Expeditionary Unit. Foreign legionnaires will make up the enlisted personnel (and some of the officers, for the more experienced legionnaires) of the ground combat element, the logistics combat elements, and part of the ground crew of the aviation combat element. The 1st Foreign Marine Regiment will also be under the Special Operations Command, rather than the Foreign Legion HQ. Just simpler that way.
Special Operations Command
Using the UAE's Presidential Guard as a backbone with some supplements from the special forces of the other states, the Special Operations Command is composed of three subordinate units (plus the 1st Foreign Marine Regiment, loaned from the Foreign Legion HQ).
The first is the battalion-strength President's Life Guards Regiment. This regiment is in the Land Forces only as a matter of ceremony. As it is responsible for the protection of the President of the Federated Arab States' person and family as well as the Federal Presidential Palace in Abu Dhabi, it will not be deployed in any sort of combat capacity.
The bulk of the Special Operation Command's forces are organized under the President's Royal Rifles, an elite infantry brigade drawn from the cream-of-the-crop of the Khaleeji Land Forces (who have to go through a demanding training course before accepted into the brigade). Organized along the lines of a US Army Infantry Brigade Combat Team, the President's Royal Rifles is the true multi-tool of the Khaleeji Land Forces, capable of air assault, paradrop, amphibious assault, counter-insurgency/counter-terrorism, or ground service in a motorized role. Think US Army Rangers.
The last unit of the Special Forces Command is the battalion-sized President's Special Service. Drawn from the absolute best personnel in the Khaleeji Defense Force, the President's Special Service is analogous to other top special forces units like the US Army's Delta Force and the United Kingdom's Special Air Service. PSS personnel are trained in various methods of deep insertion, including combat diving, amphibious assault, paradrop, and air assault. Applicants will be drawn primarily from highly qualified individuals in the President's Royal Rifles.

Khaleeji Air Force

Note: The Khaleeji Navy, Land Forces, and Air Force all operate their own fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. For convenience’s sake, this section will discuss only the Land Force and Air Force air wings. Naval Aviation will be handled separately.
Following unification, the Khaleeji Defense Force has a staggering number of combat aircraft. Counting both rotary- and fixed-wing aircraft, the Khaleeji military aviation has almost 1,400 aircraft, placing it comfortably in the top ten militaries in terms of combat aircraft (around the level of regional powers like Japan, Pakistan, France, and Turkey).
In theory, this wouldn’t be too bad, but in practice, it is an absolute nightmare. Those 1,400 aircraft are divided over 114 different types of aircraft, each with their own logistical requirements. Worse still, many of these aircraft are horribly dated--Bahrain’s Air Force pre-unification was still regularly operating its squadron of F-5 Tiger IIs, while Kuwait still operates three squadrons of F/A-18C/D Hornets. Even the UAE, the largest military in the union, is not without its dated aircraft, with over 50 Mirage 2000s still on its rosters. The situation in Army Aviation is even worse, with the Joint Aviation Command operating dinosaurs like the AH-1E Cobra, the SA342L Gazelle, and the SA316 Alouette III.
Put simply, maintaining this large of an Air Force is untenable for the FAS--especially if a quarter of the aircraft are basically useless dinosaurs. The Khaleeji Defense Force is looking to significantly downsize its inventory of aircraft over the next five years, shedding older equipment to be replaced by more modern alternatives.
Khaleeji defense policy is hoping to use air superiority as a force multiplier against numerically superior neighbors like Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan, or as a first line of defense against outside powers like China attempting to project force into the FAS. As such, autonomous and unmanned aerial combat systems are of big interest to the FAS--an interest largely inherited from the UAE, who has spent the last decade developing numerous UAVs and UCAVS, including an unmanned variant of its new light utility/attack helicopter, and has spent the last few years looking into an upgrade package to convert the F-16 into an autonomous (or at least unmanned) aircraft. These research projects are expected to continue in the FAS.
Owing to the massive wealth of the FAS but the small base of nationals from which to draw personnel for the Khaleeji Defense Force, the FAS has to find places to reduce manpower requirements wherever possible without making undue sacrifices to national security. The use of private military contractors provides an effective avenue to reduce the number of uniformed service members by outsourcing certain military functions to private firms.
The Khaleeji Air Force is expected to make extensive use of MRO contractors like government-owned AL TAIF and AMMROC, both of whom have been providing MRO work for NATO and allied deployments in the Arabian Gulf for the past five years, for maintenance and repair on its vast fleet of aircraft.
The other area where private contractors are expected to see significant use is in pilot training. The FAS is set to outsource much of its basic rotary- and fixed-wing training responsibilities to government-owned Horizon Flight Academy, where private contractors (largely retired military personnel from places like the United States, United Kingdom, and France, but with a not insignificant number of retired KDF personnel) will train the next generation of KDF pilots.
Horizon has also announced the creation of a new aggressor training squadron in the vein of American firm Draken International. Using former pilots from NATO militaries and regional air forces, Horizon Flight Academy will provide aggressor training and threat simulation services to the Khaleeji Air Force (as well as other interested Air Forces in the MENA region) to increase combat readiness. The KDF has announced that a number of the aircraft being retired from the KAF will be sold to Horizon Flight Academy for use in their aggressor training services, including the F-5 Tiger II (used by Iran), the F-16 (used by Iraq, Israel, and Turkey), and the F-15 Strike Eagle (used by Saudi Arabia, but more importantly, Israel). Horizon Flight Academy will also make attempts to purchase three Mirage F1s from Morocco (one of the only countries other than Iran still using the aircraft) and a dozen F-4 Phantom IIs (used by Iran) from Japan.

Khaleeji Navy

Traditionally, the Arab States of the Gulf have maintained small brown-water navies focused on coastal defense and EEZ enforcement. Prior to 2020, the only constituent state to operate frigates was Bahrain, who operated two decommissioned Oliver Hazard Perry-class frigates from the United States (since then, the UAE Navy acquired . Green- and blue-water naval efforts were largely left to the United States, who has long served as the guarantor of regional security for the Arab States of the Gulf (as highlighted by their intervention against China during the 2028 Gulf Crisis).
The KDF was fairly certain that this state of affairs would continue to remain in place, even as newly-elected President Santana’s platform included a plank that would see the US end its alliance with “undemocratic nations”--AKA, the Arab Gulf States. American domestic politics has always broadcast a desire to “stand down,” and so far it hasn’t materialized, so why should we get all worked up about it?
And then she actually went and did it, ordering the US military to withdraw from several critical postings in the region, including Iraq, Syria, and Afghanistan. While she hasn’t announced any plans to withdraw from the Gulf yet, this change in American foreign policy is enough to have spooked the KDF, with some inside the Khaleeji Navy arguing that the FAS needs to develop a green-water navy capable of protecting its interests in the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Oman--fast.
While developing new green-water capabilities, the Khaleeji Navy also needs to focus on updating and modernizing its brown-water capabilities. A considerable portion of the Khaleeji Navy’s combat vessels are getting a little long in the tooth, many having been procured in the ‘80s and ‘90s, and are approaching the end of their natural service life.
To this end, the Khaleeji Navy has announced a new procurement strategy aimed at developing two separate “fleets.” The first, the Indian Ocean Fleet based at Duqm in Oman, will maintain green-water capabilities, including a smattering of frigates, destroyers, submarines, and, eventually, a light carrier or LHD. The land-based naval aviation of the Indian Ocean Fleet is expected to focus primarily on long-range maritime patrol craft like the P-8 Poseidon with potentially a small complement of land-based naval bombers.
The second, the Arabian Gulf Fleet, will focus on lower tonnage craft (corvettes, fast attack craft, maybe a few frigates) for use in the littoral environment of the Gulf, with an eye towards countering the swarm tactics and submarine fleet of the numerically superior but technologically inferior Iranian Navy, while providing area denial services against larger navies from outside the Gulf itself. Land-based aircraft from both the KAF and the KN are expected to play an important in naval operations in the Gulf, such as close air support (the Iranian Navy mostly uses fast attack craft without any serious AA capabilities), ASW operations (largely using land-based MH-60 Romeos), and ISR (using the FAS’s growing drone capabilities).
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2020.09.21 20:18 ammodotcom Early American Militias: The Forgotten History of Freedmen Militias from 1776 until the Civil War
The United States militia is enshrined in the Second Amendment of the Constitution. And while the militia movement of today is widely known, its history – and the history of independent Constitutional militias stretching back to the dawn of the republic – is far less well known.
Why does this matter nowadays? Because understanding the historical roots of America's militias helps modern-day members appreciate the role they play in our federal system of government. Because since inception, militias have been tasked with stopping those who hold public office from exceeding their authority or those seeking to enact legislation outside of their operating charter – a crucial check against incremental encroachment by the state, as James Madison wrote in the Federalist Papers on January 29, 1788:
"Besides the advantage of being armed, which the Americans possess over the people of almost every other nation, the existence of subordinate governments, to which the people are attached, and by which the militia officers are appointed, forms a barrier against the enterprises of ambition, more insurmountable than any which a simple government of any form can admit of."
The militia is the final means of recourse in this cycle of self-government – and arguably the most important. Thus this is the first in a two-part historical series on America's militias. The second part, American Militias after the Civil War: From Black Codes to the Black Panthers and Beyond, looks at additional changes this American institution underwent from Reconstruction onwards.
The Colonial Origins of the United States Militia
The vision of an American militia goes back even before the United States Constitution or the founding of the United States. In most states in colonial America, all able-bodied men were considered to be part of the militia – through which the individual towns and cities would provide for the common defense.
A militia is explicitly mentioned in the United States Constitution, prior to the Bill of Rights. Article I, Section 8, drafted around the same time as the founding of the Springfield Armory (ground zero for American ammunition manufacturing), mentions it three times alone:
• To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;
• To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;
• Article II, Section 2 designates the President of the United States as the “Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the several States.”
While the 1903 Militia Act is a relatively recent innovation to the world of the American militia, it is worth referencing, even if briefly, as we dive into our long history. The Militia Act of 1903 separates the militia into two groups:
• Organized Militia: These are the forces that comprise the National Guard, which are the organized militia forces of each state. It is not synonymous with the National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve military force under joint control of the federal and state governments.
• Unorganized Militia: This is virtually every other man in the United States. Men are not part of the unorganized militia if they are part of the organized militia. All other able-bodied men between the ages of 17 and 45 are considered part of the militia. This is an important concept to remember, even as we work through the part of militia history predating this Act.
In the pre-1903 Militia Act era, the line between the two is not so clearly defined. Many of the militias discussed below are organized and subject to statute, but not “organized” in the sense that they have official membership rolls, uniforms, or even significant involvement from their respective state and territorial governments. Much like the later independent or “Constitutional militia” movement, there is a rank, structure and a chain of command, but the organization is not necessarily subject to government oversight – other than having to comply with all relevant statutes. In the case of the militias of the Revolutionary War period, this is very fuzzy.
The militia is an outgrowth of an English common law institution. The word itself dates back to 1590. Originally, the word simply meant soldiers in the service of the state. By the mid-17th Century, however, it had taken on connotations of a civilian military force. It carried additional connotations in terms of a military raised in temporary service to respond to some kind of an emergency.
The early militias, on both sides of the Atlantic, served the purpose of both security and defense. These were particularly important in the New World, where attacks from hostile Indian tribes were a constant threat. Indeed, these militias played a key role in the French and Indian Wars, including the primary one taking place concurrently with the Seven Years War between the years 1754 and 1763.
During these periods, militias organized by towns were also the pool from which the Provincial Forces were drafted. This was, in fact, a rare occurrence. The Provincial Forces were one of the best-paying wage labor opportunities available to American colonists, so their ranks were rarely short.
While the Provincial Forces were very professional and disciplined, the militias were not. Indeed, no less an authority than George Washington (at that time the adjutant-general of the Virginia militia) noted that the militia was largely disorganized. He considered the militia fit for times of peace, but ill-equipped for times of war. Even during peace, the bulk of the colonial military were what are today Army Rangers – well paid, professional, highly disciplined, and accomplished.
Militias During the American Revolution
The militias, however, played a central role in the American Revolution. The famous “Minutemen” – figures as iconic as the cowboy in American mythology – are, in fact, personifications and embodiments of the militia as it existed during the time of the American Revolution.
The history of the American militia cannot be discussed without talking about the Minutemen. These were effectively partisans in the war against the British, for which there is a subtle irony: The Minutemen harked back to the earliest traditions of the English countryside militia – ready on a moment’s notice.
Indeed, the militia is perhaps the British institution that most shaped the United States and its culture.
The British did not represent the entire militia, but the most disciplined and committed elements of it. They were, as the name implies, ready to go at a minute’s notice. They represented approximately a quarter of the entire force, and skewed toward the younger and more radical members of the revolutionary movement.
The roots of the Minutemen (and of the militia in general) lie in the old British colonial militia. In the Massachusetts Bay Colony, all able-bodied men between the ages of 16 and 60 were obligated to serve in the militia. By 1645, possibly earlier, there were men selected specially for rapid deployment segments of the militia, known as “training bands.” The term “Minutemen” was even used during this period. These were organized on a town-by-town basis, with some towns, notably Lexington, not having special rapid response units.
During this period, Minutemen could not be over 30 years old. Officers were elected by rank and file, as was generally common throughout the colonial militias. Fowling pieces were the most common weapon. Uniforms were nonexistent, with hunting gear being the most common form of clothing. The French and Indian War provided the irregular forces with training in proto-guerilla warfare that European troops were not familiar with.
On the eve of the Revolutionary War, the Minutemen became something distinct from the rest of the militia, not simply its most committed segment. The Powder Alarm of 1774 underscored the need for a sleeker, more committed and more rapidly responding segment of the militia – the regular militia simply did not deploy quickly enough to prevent the British military from seizing materiel from the local ammunition stores and armories.
The British feared the power of the militias and the Minutemen prior to the Revolution. One of the strategic aims of the Intolerable Acts was to significantly decrease the power of town government. When General Thomas Gage, Governor of Massachusetts under the Intolerable Acts, attempted to seat his hand-picked court in Worcester, 2,000 militiamen prevented him from doing so. In response, Gage set out to confiscate provincial munitions. The militia responded in kind by assembling 4,000 men to the Cambridge common.
From the very beginning of the revolution, the militias played a pivotal role, despite the fact that they were of limited utility. The Battles of Lexington and Concord started as a confrontation between the local militias and the colonial authorities. On April 19, 1775, 800 British troops marched out of Boston to Concord. They were unable to locate their target, the colonists’ arms and ammunition, which they were to confiscate. It was at 5 a.m. that they encountered 70 militiamen in Concord. They ordered the militiamen to disperse, but the militiamen refused. This is what led to “the shot heard round the world,” but to this day historians are unsure who fired first.
While the militias themselves were primarily used for disrupting supply lines and harrassing, skirmishing type attacks, many of the senior officers were those who had cut their teeth bush fighting during the French and Indian Wars. On the other hand, the British senior officers had no experience with this kind of fighting and had to learn it on the fly.
On their way back to the city after being unable to find the arms and ammunition, the British were stalked and sniped by militiamen. The company was routed, and 900 additional troops were required to save them from the clandestine attacks of the Patriot militias.
Throughout the Revolutionary War, the Minutemen model increasingly became the standard for irregular militia fighters. This provided the Continental Army with swelled numbers on short notice. While the Minutemen weren’t known as great marksmen, the psychological impact and distraction of their presence certainly helped win the Patriots’ cause. Scores of militias were culled from each of the newly independent 13 states, as well as Vermont, which was at that time its own independent republic and not one of the United States.
While the revolutionary fervor was felt most strongly in the militias at the beginning of the war, this waned over time. After all, the Revolutionary War lasted eight years – a long time to maintain that level of enthusiasm. The militias elected their own officers and often used this to ensure that they would not have to serve outside of their home state. Often times, militia members hired replacements, and in extreme cases, exorbitant bribes were required to get the men to perform their militia duties. The currency became inflated over the course of the war, requiring land grants and promises of slaves at the war’s end.
The militia was a hugely popular public institution at the end of the Revolutionary War. It was seen as the national defense of a free people, as opposed to a standing army. Most experts, however, did not feel that the militia had much in the way of actual military value in the event of a foreign invasion. Still, figures like George Washington were forced to support the militia publicly, while speaking of its limitations more privately.
Continue reading Early American Militias: The Forgotten History of Freedmen Militias from 1776 until the Civil War at
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2020.09.21 18:00 EmpireOfChairs Capstone for Part 3: Gravity's Rainbow

Hello, everybody! It’s finally time to leave the Zone!
Can you believe that you haven’t even gotten to the most difficult part of the novel yet?
Anyway, I’ve included a massive plot summary here, because the last capstone had one, but this is only for the benefit of new and future readers who are struggling to make sense of the plot threads, and it doesn’t contain any real analysis. If you feel like you understood the gist of what happened already, then feel free to skip it. I am hoping that this summary will elucidate this part of the novel for those who are having trouble following the narrative but still want the opportunity to come to their own conclusions about what it all means.
Throughout In the Zone, I found my real life suddenly full of random obstacles that meant that I couldn’t contribute to as many threads as I would have liked. I would read those other threads and find that things which had fascinated me were either being ignored wholesale or else (I felt) misinterpreted in the comments. As such, I would like to give my thoughts on them here and now, before we leave the Zone and the opportunity to discuss these things is lost.
However, because the plot of In the Zone is so damn long, I’ve decided to do things a little bit differently: I’m going to use this main thread for the summary, and then I’m going to write individual comments on the various parts of In the Zone which I think deserve more analysis before we move on to The Counterforce. The parts I will be analysing will be titled Bianca, Enzian, and The Castle, with associated page numbers based around the 902-page Vintage edition.
Plot Summary:
As you would imagine, I can’t put a lot of detail into a brief summary of what would, on its own, still represent a fairly long novel. I’d like to apologise in advance if I happen to miss anything important, story-wise.
In the Zone opens with Slothrop in his new secret identity as British journalist Ian Scuffling, travelling by train trough the remnants of post-war Germany, the Zone, where he shall remain for most of the book. He meets a racist, jingoistic military man named Major Duane Marvy, who is promptly thrown off the train by a mysterious African ‘rocket-trooper’ named Orbst Enzian. Wandering through the Zone, Slothrop encounters Geli Tripping, a witch with an owl who reveals herself to be the lover of a murderous Soviet cyborg named Tchitcherine, who is involved with finding the Schwarzgerät; a one-of-a-kind V-2 rocket. Having apparently escaped Them, finding out what happened to this rocket then becomes the primary goal of Slothrop – his new epic quest.
Slothrop attempts to infiltrate the Mittelwerke, a vast SS-shaped underground tunnel complex, used by the Nazis to create V-2 rockets using slave-labourers from the nearby Dora concentration camp. He finds the place invaded by Marvy’s army, and the Russians – who both decide to murder Slothrop for discovering what seems to be… an ongoing operation? After his escape, Slothrop finds himself escaping to Berlin via hot-air balloon, only to be hunted by Marvy’s boys once more, but luckily the balloon is filled with custard pies, which are then thrown into the engine of Marvy’s aircraft, presumably killing most of them.
We come to learn more about Enzian, who turns out to have lived previously as a sex-slave to Weissman, a high-ranking German officer who participated in the Herero genocide that wiped out Enzian’s family. As time progressed, Enzian became Weissman’s Monster – the sinister, black right-hand man during his master’s involvement with the development of the V-2 rocket and the mysterious Schwarzgerät. In the Zone, with Weissman’s disappearance, Enzian has taken on a new, commanding role as the leader of the Schwarzkommando – a paramilitary death-cult made up of members of the Erdschweinhöhle (the death-obsessed Herero-survivors scattered throughout various communities in Nordhausen), who have made it their goal to find the Schwarzgerät. He even gets his own right-hand man in the form of the radio-enthusiast Andreas Orukambe. Among the Schwarzkommando, however, there is disagreement – some, like Enzian, believe in the destiny of destruction promised by the Rocket, whilst others, such as Ombindi of the Empty Ones, wish to initiate their own form of ‘racial suicide’, which uses sexual deviancy to ensure a negative birth-rate, which is seen as a triumph of material pleasure over the European ideals of Christian asceticism and death-worship.
Because of his quest to discover the Schwarzgerät, he is by default the arch-nemesis of Tchitcherine. Tchitcherine, we find out, is the long-lost half-brother of Enzian, their father having had a steamy affair with a Herero girl whilst in the midst of deserting the Russo-Japanese War. He grows up into a high-ranking agent of the Leninist Soviet regime, being principally tasked with giving the native people of Kyrgyzstan a new language (the New Turkic Alphabet), which isn’t historically accurate, by the way. During an uprising against conscription in 1916, thousands of native Kazakhs were killed, in an event which Tchitcherine refers to as the Kirghiz Light, which loses him his cosy, bureaucratic job. He is haunted by this light, which he sees as an illumination, a transcendent moment in which he saw the force behind it all. Sent out to the Zone, Tchitcherine has quickly adopted the new role of Rocket-fanatic, believing (like Enzian) that there is a spiritual force to be revealed to him in the Schwarzgerät. He is not entirely sure why his superiors sent him to the Zone, but he is absolutely convinced that it somehow involves Enzian and the Schwarzkommando.
Back to Slothrop, who briefly runs into Enzian again, only to be told, rather ominously, that reality is not real. Enzian, indeed, seems to treat his existence as though they were all conjured into being by some director or writer-God, and that all they can do is follow a pre-determined path to His ending. Weird. Anyway, Slothrop then meets Säure Bummer, the coolest man in the Zone – a proto-hippie drug dealer and money-counterfeiter, who suggests that Slothrop take on the superhero identity of Rocketman (which he does) and then advises him to travel to a bar to meet a contact (Seaman Bodine, the foul-mouthed sailor) who will show Slothrop the way to the Schwarzgerät in exchange for picking up a massive shipment of marijuana – located in the centre of the Potsdam conference. He is then to return with the product, which will be given to an influential Zone personality called der Springer, who will know Slothrop is cool because Säure has given him a chess-piece (a white knight) with which to identify himself. With this potential reward, along with part of the score and one million fake marks, Slothrop decides to haul ass to the conference. He invents another disguise (Max Schelpzig, the name on the fake ID which brought him to Europe in the first place) and sets forth, first by taking a boat into the Russian sector and then running on foot through an Autobahn, jumping the barricade into Potsdam. He gets the dope eventually, after a few awkward encounters with politicians and a few epic stealth moves, and then returns to his boat, where he is then drugged and dragged away, unconscious. Turns out, Tchitcherine has been watching him the whole time, and has just drugged him with the truth-serum/LSD stand-in Sodium Amytal.). He then tries out a huge chunk of Slothrop’s product with his right-hand man, Dzaqyp Qulan, and dumps Slothrop in an abandoned film studio. Waking up, Slothrop encounters Greta Erdmann, a pre-war pornographic actress, who is searching the studio in the hopes of finding her daughter, Bianca, who was conceived at this very studio, with a man named Max Schelpzig, during the filming of German director der Springer’s movie Alpdrücken. Slothrop confides that he isn’t so sure that he’s not in a movie right now.
Meanwhile, the Argentinian anarchists of Squalidozzi find themselves in a submarine, longing for the Zone to become a permanently decentralised monument to the freedom of the individual, in stark contrast from what is happening back home, in their native Buenos Aires. They believe in the power of art to inspire revolution, and desire to work with der Springer to create a film version of Martin Fierro which will force their revolution into existence – just as his propaganda films seemed to will the Schwarzkommando into existence.
Quite the opposite kind of person is then introduced to us: Franz Pökler, a Nazi engineer who worked on the V-2 rocket and the Schwarzgerät under the command of Weissman (now calling himself Captain Blicero). Pynchon shows us basically all of Pökler’s adult life, in a non-linear order. What happens, in short, is this: Pökler is inspired to become a rocket-engineer after taking university lectures in chemistry via Laszlo Jamf, the Pavlovian who somehow conditioned Slothrop as a baby to get erections during V-2 rocket strikes, decades before the V-2 was invented. He marries Leni Pökler, a communist reactionary who will drift apart from him as Weimar Germany becomes the hotseat for a new form of Evil. After watching the late-night premiere of Alpdrücken, Pökler runs home and impregnates Leni with their only child, Ilse. Raising her, he feels compelled to instil within her a desire to travel to the Moon, which is handily reinforced with frequent visits to Zwölfkinder, an amusement park run entirely by children. With Leni gone, Pökler falls deep into his work for the Nazis. As time goes on, he begins to question the nature of his work – is what he is doing just as Evil as what They are doing? Blicero and the other higher-ups catch wind of this, and, to prevent sabotage, Ilse is removed from Pökler’s life. He realises that bringing up the topic will result in termination, possibly of his life, and so he keeps on with the rocket work. He then sees Ilse again, delivered to him at his office without a note, and is advised to go to Zwölfkinder with her, which he does. She disappears the next day. This happens year after year on the same day, with Pökler gradually developing a harrowing fear that she died in the first year, and was replaced by a similar-looking girl. On their final visit to Zwölfkinder, after the Nazi defeat, they find the park empty, and ‘Ilse’ no longer likes the Moon. She tells him that they will no meet again. He returns to the office to find that it has been bombed to smithereens – interesting, isn’t it, how this just so happened to occur on the same day that Pökler goes on his holiday? Bewildered, Pökler travels to the location that Ilse and Leni were supposedly being held, only to find himself in the middle of the Dora concentration camp.
We then encounter the quick story of Horst Achtfaden, another Nazi engineer who, whilst on-board a possibly imaginary “Toiletship” vessel, is captured by Enzian and the Schwarzkommando, who demand that he reveal to them the location of the Schwarzgerät. Deciding that the entire War was just a big joke and that it definitely isn’t worth dying for, he claims that he has no idea what they are talking about, but that there was a colleague named Narrisch who worked directly on the project, so maybe bother him instead.
Back to Slothrop, who is now following the slightly unhinged Greta Erdmann’s lead as she follows a hunch that she hopes will lead straight to Bianca. This leads to a coastal town near the Lüneberg Heath, where the glimpse of a shrouded figure in the mist sends Greta into hysterics before it disappears. As evening approaches, a party-boat named the Anubis drifts by the coast. Upon seeing it, Greta becomes convinced that Bianca is on-board, and jumps into the water after it. Slothrop swims after her, losing his entire Rocketman costume to the sea as he does so. He discovers that the ship is a massive upper-class, elite society orgy vessel - people are indulging in the most depraved sexual acts he has ever seen, all the time, all over the place. And as the night wades on, the centrepiece of this orgy commences – a young girl (Bianca) performs half of a Shirley Temple routine before being publicly humiliated and whipped by Erdmann, her mother. The following morning, Bianca enters Slothrop’s room and the two have sex. Later, a Japanese people-watcher named Ensign Morituri, who lived on the same coastal town that Slothrop was at when they saw the Anubis, relates the horrible truth of Erdmann’s past life. In the lead-up to her time with Slothrop, Erdmann, a fellow native of the town, had gradually gone insane with her partner Gerhardt von Goll, believing herself (for some reason) to be part-Jewish. As some sort of psychotic payback against the Nazis, she began dressing in a shroud and luring the local children out to the swamps, where she would role-play with them (her as Nazi, child as Jew) before drowning them. The figure Erdmann saw earlier is revealed to be a grown-up version of one of the few survivors of her serial-killings – a survivor only because Morituri was there to stop her.
Later, Slothrop endeavours to find Erdmann after she locks herself in her room out of guilt. However, she reveals that her guilt is out of a completely unrelated event – during her time at the Heath, she became the sexual associate of Captain Blicero, who is revealed to have gone insane whilst pursuing some kind of apocalyptic project with a sex-slave (a young boy named Gottfried, who has mysteriously disappeared…) and has now come to see himself as a mythic figure in a fantasy world, running through a different version of Germany from everyone else. During her career as a sex-icon, Blicero took Greta to a remote room in a petrochemical plant, filled with politicians and business tycoons, who introduced her to clothing made entirely out of a new form of plastic – she finds it so stimulating that she wanted to immediate get down and dirty with those around her, but was just as quickly led out of the room again, and, over time, left with a growing concern that she witnessed the birth of something too horrible to really get to the bottom of.
Shortly after this encounter, a major storm hits the Anubis, and many of the passengers, including Slothrop, find themselves thrown head-first into the Sea. Slothrop seems content that the ‘Fascist cargo’ of the ship will soon drown to death. Of course, he is not included – he is soon picked up by an illegal smuggler and sweet old lady called Frau Gnahb, who travels with her young descendant Otto. Reaching land the following morning, Slothrop quickly finds a white-suited man calling himself der Springer, who (after Slothrop shows him Säure’s chess-piece) reveals himself to be none other than Gerhardt von Goll. He is travelling with his friend, an ex-scientist named Narrisch. They all then hop on-board to journey to Peenemunde, where von Goll is immediately arrested by Russian authorities. Narrisch, angered by the whole thing, then forces Slothrop to accompany him as they do another deep-cover infiltration, this time of the Tchitcherine’s military base where they are keeping von Goll. Freeing von Goll, who is on Sodium Amytal, Slothrop finds himself kocking a guard unconscious and taking his uniform. Then, Slothrop and Narrisch run into Tchitcherine and Qulan, where they all get very confused about the uniforms, thus buying enough time for von Goll’s escape. Narrisch then decides to stay behind to fight off the Russians, to allow Frau Gnahb and the gang to get away safely.
Then, to Slothrop’s horror, they once more find the Anubis, where Slothrop is told that he will find his stash to give to von Goll in the engine room. Going on-board, he finds that no-one on the ship remembers or recognises him at all. He gets to the engine room, where the lights go out completely, and voices proceed to taunt and beat him. Frightened, he looks up to find the corpse of Bianca hanging from a noose, just above the stash. He gets it and runs, finding invisible hands grabbing his own as he tries to climb the ladder out of there.
Meanwhile, two older characters, Katje and Pirate, find themselves entwined with a counter-revolutionary force after the destruction of the White Visitation. Katje discovers a film by Osbie Feel which seems to reveal to her the whole Plan and how to combat it, whilst Pirate, on the other hand, has a psychic vision in which he discovers that people of those whom he had trusted are actually parts of Them, and, what’s worse, They know that he is watching them. Both Katje and Pirate begin to form a vague hope of something that can defeat Them, some kind of Counterforce…
Wandering homeless around the Zone again, Slothrop begins to wonder about his own family history, and the environmental damage wrought by his family’s paper company. Furthermore, he thinks back to his first American ancestor, William Slothrop, a pig-loving anti-establishment figure whose political pamphlet was burned on-masse by the Elite, and was then forced to return, defeated, to England. Slothrop once more meets both Marvy and the Schwarzkommando, neither of whom recognise him in the Russian uniform. We soon find out that Marvy is now in league with the Soviets, who have been extracting information about the Schwarzgerät from Narrisch and selling it back to Marvy. While this is going on, Slothrop finds Cuxhaven, where the local children ask him to become their mythical pig-hero, Plechazunga, as part of a pagan festival. Crashed by the cops, Slothrop takes refuge with a teenage girl, who wishes to escape with him, but refuses to leave when the time comes. Slothrop, on the road again, finds a slightly mad German child who demands that Slothrop help him find his lemming, which they fail to do, but Slothrop himself finds a pig, who accompanies him on his journey, which is interrupted by one evening in which Slothrop finds a fellow homeless wanderer named Franz Pökler, who he finds strangely relatable.
Meanwhile, we get to hear about Lyle Bland. Bland was a member of the Masons, though he did not care about the society in the same way that the other Masons seemed to. However, as time went on, he felt that he understood their rites and rituals in a way that the real members never did. He became connected to arcane magickal forces, creating nightly out-of-body experiences, saying on his deathbed that he would choose that night to break through to the Other Side and achieve transcendence. Bland’s life prior to this event was a mish-mash of government deals with mobsters, with the conniving blackmail techniques of intelligence agencies, with the grand conspiracies of international technology tycoons. This last one seems particularly interesting, don’t you think? Bland thinks so too, and he actually has quite a pet passion for a remarkable scheme involving pinball machines that are built to fail – the machines will, in fact, fail immediately after they are fixed. How? Good question.
The final Slothrop scene of In the Zone shows him once more with Bodine, running away from American troops and straight into a mansion which happens to be hosting the party of the century. Ditching his pig-costume in a closet, he takes up in a bedroom with a prostitute named Solange, who is actually Leni Pökler in a new identity. Meanwhile, Bodine runs into Major Marvy, who is here to have sex with a minority so that he can live out a racist power-fantasy. Bodine gives Marvy a vial of cocaine, which Marvy then stashes into his jacket. Later, the mansion is raided by American troops – Marvy, having sex with a minority, freaks it because of the coke he left in his pocket, runs to the closet to find the jacket, only to discover that his whole uniform is missing – the only outfit he can put on to escape is some sort of pig costume. The American troops then find him, ask him if he is Tyrone Slothrop, which Marvy agrees to, hoping that Slothrop hasn’t done anything too bad. He is then kidnapped and dragged into the woods by Muffage and Spontoon, the two hitmen hired by Pointsmen in a previous part of the book to find Slothrop, who proceed to drug and castrate Marvy.
The final section features Mossmoon and Scammony, two government boys back in England who gossip about Pointsman’s career ruination over the castration of Marvy, and the collapse of the whole Scheme. They uneasily discuss the role of homosexuality in government conspiracies. They reveal, finally, what Slothrop was supposed to do in Their Grand Scheme. He was supposed to begin the extermination of the black race. Oh well, they think. If he can’t do it, They will just have to develop different methods.
In the Zone ends on, or around, August 6th 1945 – the date of the atomic bomb strike on Hiroshima. It is also the celebration the Transfiguration.
Discussion Questions:
· Has it occurred to you that most of the dialogue in these sections would have been spoken in German?
· Why do you think the novel is divided into four parts, and what do you think separates them?
· What do you make of the use of the Wizard of Oz quote that begins this section? Quite interesting, especially considering that this is the only epigram that seems to have no reference point in the actual novel.
· What has changed between the beginning and the end of In the Zone?
· Many have expressed the view that Gravity’s Rainbow is not about WWII at all. In fact, Gravity’s Rainbow is about Vietnam. How do you feel about that interpretation, given the focus on the Zone here? More importantly, what does In the Zone tell us about the world in 1973?
· Do you believe that Gravity’s Rainbow is at all autobiographical?
· Why do you think Slothrop keeps becoming a superhero in these sections? What do superheroes and comic books mean to Pynchon?
· Some people have pointed out, with a particular focus on the episodes in which Slothrop wakes up in the studio and Katje finds Osbie Feel’s movie, that the plot is actually a giant film. How does that strike you, and how do you think that metafiction and the introduction of alternative mediums relates to the themes of In the Zone?
· In the Zone makes up literally half of the book. But why? What’s so important about it that could not expressed elsewhere?
· For that matter, what do you make of the Zone itself? Why do you think he wrote a book around it?
· Does Pynchon evoke the imagery of ghosts, magic, angels, demons, telepathy and other phenomena with genuine sincerity, or are we supposed to take these as metaphors for more grounded events?
· This section is far more epic in scope than the two preceding it. Did you encounter anything cool or interesting that you think we forgot about in the discussion threads?
· What do you make of the Rocket-cartel, and what do think Their grand plan actually is?
· What was your favourite episode of this part? Also, what was your favourite Pynchon-tangent or speech?
Previous Threads:
Sections 30-33
Sections 34-37
Sections 38-40
Sections 41-45
Sections 46-48
Sections 49-53
Sections 54-57
Sections 58-61
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VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA, CANADA (September 21, 2020) – Thoughtful Brands Inc. (CSE:TBI FSE: 1WZ1; OTCQB: PEMTF) (the “Company” or “Thoughtful Brands”), a global natural health products and eCommerce technology company, is pleased to announce that it has signed a binding term sheet to acquire (the “Proposed Acquisition”) all of the issued and outstanding shares, or all of the assets of, Kentucky-based hemp extraction company American CBD Extraction Corp. (“American CBD”). The Proposed Acquisition is expected to set the stage for Thoughtful Brands to become a fully vertically-integrated CBD company, controlling each aspect of the supply chain, including production, logistics and value chain.
Upon completion of the Proposed Acquisition, the Company will acquire an abundance of hemp biomass along with a fully equipped 41,000 square foot facility with the ability to process more than 1,200 pounds of hemp per day once licensed. Upon completion, Thoughtful Brands would also be able to utilize American CBD’s technological and scientific expertise to enhance the formulations of the Company’s various direct-to-consumer CBD brands, which include Nature’s Exclusive, Sativida and the recently acquired Golden Path and Wild Mariposa. Additionally, the Company plans to sell American CBD’s hemp biomass to support operations in Europe and to other clients worldwide.
“The term sheet with American CBD is an important milestone for the Company because it increases the likelihood of expanded margins and will allow us to launch innovative new products for which we control every step of the process,” said Thoughtful Brands CEO Ryan Hoggan. “Once we’re able to work directly with the team at American CBD and within their state-of-the-art Kentucky facility, we expect to be able to fine-tune and advance our cannabinoid product portfolio.”
Acquisition Details
The Company proposes to acquire all of the issued and outstanding share capital of, or all of the assets of, American CBD in consideration for Cdn$11,000,000, which will be satisfied through the issuance of common shares of the Company (the “Consideration Shares”). The Consideration Shares will be issued to the existing shareholders of American CBD or, in the case of an asset acquisition, directly to American CBD, at a deemed price equivalent to the lesser of (a) Cdn$0.18 per share or (b) the five-day volume-weighted average closing price of the Company’s common shares on the Canadian Securities Exchange for the period preceding closing of the Proposed Acquisition. The Consideration Shares shall be paid upfront and subject to an escrow arrangement, from which 25% of the Consideration Shares will be released on the closing date of the Proposed Acquisition, followed by an additional 25% after each subsequent 90-day period.
In addition to the Consideration Shares, a bonus of Cdn$1,000,000 will be paid to the operating team of American CBD on closing and a Cdn$2,000,000 performance milestone payment will be paid to the operating team of American CBD upon the achievement of production and cumulative online sales of over USD$1,000,000. The bonus and milestone shares will be payable in common shares of the Company based on the five-day volume weighted average closing price of the Company’s shares on the Canadian Securities Exchange immediately prior to the bonus and milestone payments becoming payable.
Closing of the Proposed Acquisition is subject to American CBD: (a) having a minimum cash balance of Cdn$2,000,000, less closing costs related to the Proposed Acquisition (which are not exceed Cdn$40,000); (b) having no debts or liabilities; and (c) having been granted a seat on the Company’s board of directors, all on the closing of the Proposed Acquisition.
The Company is at arms-length from American CBD and its shareholders. The transaction will not constitute a fundamental change for the Company, nor is it expected to result in a change of control of the Company, within the meaning of applicable securities laws and the policies of the Canadian Securities Exchange.
Readers are cautioned that the final terms and structure for a transaction between the Company and American CBD have not yet been determined. Completion of any transaction remains subject to negotiation of definitive documentation and satisfaction of conditions set forth above, as well as customary closing conditions for a transaction of this nature. The Proposed Acquisition cannot be completed until these conditions are satisfied. The Company will provide additional information regarding the Proposed Acquisition as soon as it becomes available.
About Thoughtful Brands Inc.
Thoughtful Brands Inc. is an eCommerce technology company that researches, develops, markets, and distributes natural health products through various brands in North America and Europe. Through continuous strategic acquisitions, the Company has a strong footprint in the CBD market, as well as the burgeoning psychedelic medicine sector. Thoughtful Brands owns and operates a 110,000 square foot pharmaceutical manufacturing facility in Radebeul, Germany, where its highly skilled team conducts clinical studies utilizing naturally occurring psilocybin and other compounds found in psychedelics for the treatment of opiate addiction, while planning for future opportunities to create proprietary psilocybin products.
About American CBD Extraction Corp.
From the rich soils of Kentucky, American CBD Extraction Corp. is a Kentucky-based company that produces cannabinoid distillates and isolates, and is positioned to become a significant supplier of hemp-derived extracts. Its location in the eastern part of Kentucky, a place that has been called “The Hemp Capital of the United States,” gives American CBD the privilege to partner with the state’s most experienced farmers to source the highest quality hemp for its products. American CBD is a company founded on dedication, strong work ethic and quality, fulfilling its mission to provide consistent, high-grade and clean hemp-derived CBD oil to meet the growing demand in this evolving marketplace.
Chief Executive Officer
For further information, readers are encouraged to contact Joel Shacker, President at +604.423.4733 or by email at i[email protected]
Neither the Canadian Securities Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the Canadian Securities Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this press release, which has been prepared by management.
Cautionary Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statement
All statements in this press release, other than statements of historical fact, are “forward-looking information” with respect to the Company within the meaning of applicable securities laws, including with respect to the completion of the Proposed Acquisition, the synergies created by the acquisition of American CBD, plans to sell hemp biomass to support its operations in Europe and to other clients worldwide, its plans to acquire additional revenue-producing natural health product brands and operations in both Europe and North America with the goal of establishing an international distribution network utilizing its eCommerce technology platform. The Company provides forward-looking statements for the purpose of conveying information about current expectations and plans relating to the future and readers are cautioned that such statements may not be appropriate for other purposes. By its nature, this information is subject to inherent risks and uncertainties that may be general or specific and which give rise to the possibility that expectations, forecasts, predictions, projections or conclusions will not prove to be accurate, that assumptions may not be correct and that objectives, strategic goals and priorities will not be achieved. These risks and uncertainties include but are not limited those identified and reported in the Company’s public filings under the Company’s SEDAR profile at Although the Company has attempted to identify important factors that could cause actual actions, events or results to differ materially from those described in forward-looking information, there may be other factors that cause actions, events or results not to be as anticipated, estimated or intended. There can be no assurance that such information will prove to be accurate as actual results and future events could differ materially from those anticipated in such statements. The Company disclaims any intention or obligation to update or revise any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise unless required by law.
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2020.09.21 14:47 WorkingInOttawa Ottawa Job Listing: Medical / Clinical Director – Intensive / Critical Care – Based in Dubai, UAE

Prospect Health are recruiting for 3 x ICU Medical Directors to work in prestigious government hospitals in Sharjah, Ras Al-Khaimah and Fujairah.
The hospitals themselves are government owned and as such operate with the highest standards of care. Heavy investment is regularly made in this affluent nation’s healthcare system to ensure patients are given what they need.
You would be working closely with a highly skilled team of doctors and nurses many of whom have trained in the UK, Canada and US. We welcome applicants from around the world who are eligible for consultant status holding one of CCT, American Board, Canadian Board or equivalent.
You must have experience managing ICU as either a clinical director or medical director and ideally hold a management qualification
The role is 100% ICU and we are looking for intensivists or anesthetists that are comfortable working solely in ICU. These positions are full time permanent contracts with open-end dates giving you great flexibility.
The United Arab Emirates offers a fantastic expat lifestyle with year-round sunshine and miles of glorious unspoiled beaches.
Whether it be the glamour of Dubai or some of the more relaxed northern cities there is plenty to keep you entertained. Some of the world’s largest shopping malls and entertainment complexes line the streets offering something for everyone.
The northern city of Ras Al-Khaimah and eastern city of Fujairah offer a more relaxed way of life, coastal based and a lower cost of living. You can get substantial property for a fraction of the cost of Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Sharjah is much closer to Dubai with continued building almost making it hard to separate the two cities.
Education opportunities:
This client offers up educational support for dependent children between the ages of 8-16, usually this comes in the form of an allowance to pay for said child’s placement in school. It must be said that some of the schools on offer, though placement is not guaranteed, provides some of the best educational opportunities in the world. One of the most interesting things about the schooling pool in the U.A.E is that there a number of different curriculum’s on over from a number of different schools. There are British curriculum schools, American curriculum schools and there is even a number of International Baccalaureate schools, offering one of the most comprehensive and rewarding educational programs in the world. Very often the high schools are well suited to feeding their students into redbrick and Ivy League universities back at home. Some of the less tangible benefits would be the multilingual and multicultural that children are placed into by default, character building to the say the least.

Key Benefits:
A tax-free salary (Salaries to be discussed with the client)
This vacancy in particular is government run which offers 5-day work week over the
Working within government facilities in the Middle East often ensures a certain procedural culture that would fit hand in glove with some of the NHS cultures you might be used to, with particular regard to governance and outcomes.
• Accommodation in serviced apartments close to site
• A car
• Free medical insurance
• Free malpractice insurance
• Educational allowance for your children
• Flights once a year
• 30 days annual leave
• 10 public holidays

The post Medical / Clinical Director - Intensive / Critical Care - Based in Dubai, UAE first appeared on Working in Ottawa.
from Working in Ottawa
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2020.09.20 18:48 SuperHotUKDeals Spend £40+ at Tesco and get £5 back (selected accounts) @ American Express

The following description is not provided by this sub or any of it's contributors.
American Express
New statement credit offer showing on Amex Platinum cashback account, £5 statement credit for £40+ spend at Tesco online and instore. States limited to first 20,000 cardholders so will be selected accounts. Decent offer if you have it as could use on grocery shop or gift cards instore for other brands e.g. Amazon gift card. If you have the offer, save to card and you have until the 30th October to use it. The statement credit will be applied typically within 5 days of the qualifying transaction. Terms listed below.
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2020.09.19 10:31 Ainsoph777 Reports (1947, declassified) from CIC agent Robert Clayton Mudd on Vatican Ratlines and Ustashi terrorists

Reports (1947, declassified) from CIC agent Robert Clayton Mudd on Vatican Ratlines and Ustashi terrorists
These documents can be found in the Pavelic Papers collection: ,
The italicized text above each document is a summary given by the researchers who have put together these collection of documents.
Further reading on this topic : Avro Manhattan , Terror Over Yugoslavia : The Threat to Europe (1953)
Edmond Paris, Genocide In Satellite Croatia, 1941-1945 : A Record of Racial and Religious Persecutions and Massacres, (1961)
J.J. Murphy, Papal Murder In Croatia, , The Converted Catholic Magazine , December 1945
Drew Pearson, Croat Himmler Finds U. S. Haven, Washington Post (October 16 1963)
Karlheinz Deschner , God and the Fascists : The Vatican alliance with Mussolini, Franco, Hitler, and Pavelic, (1965) 2013 edition
An excerpt from CIC agent Robert Clayton Mudd's January 30th 1947 report on Jesuit trained dictator Ante Pavelic fleeing Croatia via a Vatican ratline.
The Vatican Ratline being exposed here in 1947.

From the US Army file on Ante Pavelic: Special Agent Robert Clayton Mudd gives an extensive outline of Pavelic's career to date. Paragraph Five is a bombshell: the first glimpse of what would eventually be revealed as the Vatican Ratline, designed to shield Nazi fugitives from arrest and shepherding them to safe locations in countries outside of Europe.
January 30 1947
SUMMARY OF INFORMATION SUBJECT: Present Whereabouts and Past Background of Ante PAVELIC, Croat Quisling
  1. From a usually reliable source the following information has been obtained concerning the present whereabouts of Ante PAVELIC,Croat Quisling.
  2. With the collapse of German resistance in the Balkans and the subsequent withdrawal of support of the puppet Croat government on the part of the Germans, Ante PAVELIC, fearing for his personal safety at the hands of the Partisans fled from Jugoslavia into Austria where he took refuge in the small village of CELOVAC near the Austrian-Jugoslav frontier. Pavelic had an apartment and a villa there.
  3. In April of 1946 PAVELIC left Austria and came to ROME accompanied only by an Ustasa Lieutenant named DOCHSEN. Both were dressed as Roman Catholic priests. They took refuge in a college there in Via Giavomo Belli, 3, which is the only college in ROME enjoying complete extra-territoriality, and which can be entered only by presenting the proper credentials. (Presumably the Papal seal is needed because it is said that this is the only college in ROME directly under the administration of the Pope.)
  4. This informant further states that a short time ago PAVELIC obtained at the Spanish Consulate in MILANO a passport under the name of DON PEDRO GONNER. This passport is ready for Spain and has a visa either for South America or Canada. Three other members of the Ustashi are being taken care of in this same fashion but the only one so far identified is General Vlado KREN, Chief of the Croat Air Force under PAVELIC. KREN is an old-time Yugoslav officer who at the outset of the war deserted to the Germans taking with him as much loot and money as he could. He was decorated by the Germans after a lengthy inspection tour of the Croat Air Force on the Eastern Front.
  5. This informant, directed by this Agent to try to penetrate the Ustashi intelligence network in Italy and Jugoslavia, has managed to do so and it has been determined that the network runs from GRUMO-ROME-VENICE-TRIESTE-LJUBLJANA-ZAGREB. The whole affair is run under cover of the Roman Catholic clergy whose priests in these monasteries are nearly all of Croat extraction. Complete penetration of this organization is a rather lengthy process but efforts are being continued in that direction. There is no doubt that Ustashi elements in Italy communicate with one another, and that the focal point of all intelligence and activity is the Monastery of Saint Jerome , Via Tomacelli, 132,ROME.
  1. Ante PAVELIC was born in 1896 in Ivan Planina in Bosnia and practiced law in ZAGREB. An extremist even in his youth he became a member of the arch-terrorist organization known as the"Frankovci" whose founder, Dr. Josip FRANK, was a Jew and the father-in-law of Slavko KVATERNIK, the first Croat to be elevated to the rank of Field Marshall. KVATERNIK had long been a strong advocate of Croat separatism and the German ideas on a separate Croat state found in him a reday tool.
  2. The quarrelsome nature of PAVELIC became more and more apparent in the years immediately after the first war when he became involved in one dispute after another with the Centralist Party and the Croat Peasant Party of RADIC. He was the sole representative of his Party in the Skupstina (Jugoslav Parliament)but rarely attended sessions and when he did he sulked in his seat and only occasionally indulged in a long harangue in protest against some measure which he did not approve.
  3. In the early 1920's, PAVELIC began to establish his contacts with Croat emigrees in VIENNA and BUDAPEST and later on he established a close accord with the Macedonian terrorist society,IMRO. In 1927 he acted as counsel for the defense of the Macedonian terrorists at the SKOPLJE trials.
  4. Shortly after the proclamation of the establishment of the dictatorship of King ALEKSANDAR in January 1929, PAVELIC fled abroad and was subsequently condemned to death in absentia at BELGRADE for his part in anti-Serb demonstrations organized at SOFIA by Bulgarian and Macedonian terrorists.
  5. From 1930 onwards while living abroad, a great part of the time in Italy, he became the leader of a terrorist organization eventually to be known as the Ustasha. This organization was financed by ROME and BUDAPEST and given moral encouragement by the Germans. Together with JELIC, ARTUKOVIC , and the younger KVATERNIK and others he was responsible for a serious flurry of bomb outrages, the weapons and explosives all supplied by Italy. This occurred in the period between 1930 and 1935.
  6. Camps for training terrorists and saboteurs were set up in Italy and Hungary, chiefly at BRESCIA and BORGOTARO in Italy and JANKA PUSZTA in Hungary and an armed insurrection was attempted in 1933 when the Ustashi, armed by the Italians, attempted to invade the country by crossing the Adriatic in motorboats. This was unsuccessful but its lack of success probably was instrumental in the decision to assassinate King ALEKSANDAR. Two attempts were made, the last one successful and ALEKSANDAR was slain at MARSEILLES 14 October, 1943 along with the French Minister of the Interior, Jean BARTHOU. The singular lack of armed protection afforded by the Jugoslav monarch, and the general laxity of security precautions when it was well-known that one attempt had already been made on ALEKSANDAR'S life are rather ghastly tributes to the organizational ability of PAVELIC, who apparently had been able to bribe some high official in the Surete General. The Prefect of Police of MARSEILLES, JOUHANNAUD, was subsequently removed from office.
  7. Yugoslavia took her case to the League of Nations offering evidence that Italy and Hungary had openly conspired against her sovereignty. However, for some strange reason Italy's role in the affair was never considered and Hungary bore the brunt of the charges. Italy, furthermore, stubbornly refused to extradite PAVELIC who, along with the younger KVATERNIK, was placed under the permanent supervision of the Italian police until sometime in 1941.During the course of his "house arrest" he was subsidized by the Italians and he conferred long and often with Count Galeazzo CIANO on the prospective coup d'etat in Croatia.
  8. In April of 1941 he arrived in ZAGREB and proclaimed the"Free and Independent State of Croatia" with himself as the head of the government. What prompted the Axis powers to put a man like PAVELIC at the head of a puppet government is not too well-known for it was an established fact that he was an ardent extremist of the worse sort and an international gangster. Perhaps it was the fact that the Nazis and Fascists were not looking for leadership. The only thing that they needed was a fanatic, an ultra-chauvinist, who could and would do what they suggested and do it with a vengeance. At any rate in June and July, 1941 PAVELIC and his Croatian nationalists, representing the lunatic fringe of Balkan life,slaughtered in a few weeks tens of thousands of Serbians living in his "independent state" and along its peripheries.
  9. PAVELIC remained as head of the "Free and Independent State of Croatia" until early 1945 when he disappeared from the limelight and little trace of him has been found since.
  10. PAVELIC'S name tops the list of quislings whom the State Department and the Foreign Office have agreed to hand over to the Yugoslavs for trial. At the present time this Agent is expending every effort to try to trace PAVELIC AND HIS WIFE. One source yet unconfirmed states that she is living in VENICE under an assumed name while yet another says that she is living somewhere in ROME.
AGENTS COMMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: IN view of the fact that this man, while generally considered a criminal, is not a criminal in just the ordinary sense but a political criminal as well, and in view of the fact that the Yugoslav Government through its controlled press has on several occasions accused the Anglo-Americans of hiding PAVELIC to further their own aims, this Agent recommends that every effort should be made to apprehend him and ship him back to the Jugoslav Government for trial. In so doing not only would the Yugoslav propaganda guns be silenced and the people of Jugoslavia forced to admit that their previous propaganda was all false, but also a serious threat to security would be removed and the position of the Anglo-Americans strengthened with regard to those south Slav elements who were pro-Allied before the war. The Ustashi organization in Italy is at the present moment a tightly-knit group still maintaining its "cell" organization, still publishing its papers, and still interested in the same aims that they professed before and during the war. The center of this organization is the Monastery of St. Jerome, Via Tomacelli, 132, ROME.
Approved:EDWIN F. COWAN Chief, CIC DISTRIBUTION:CIC, Zone 1 (1)CIC, Zone 3 (1) CIC, Zone 5 (1)CIC, Zone 6 (1)AC of S, G-2, AFHQ (2)Chief, CIC, AFHQ (1):: filing information


Excerpt from CIC agent Robert Clayton Mudd's February 12th report

This is a follow-up report to Counter-Intelligence Corps Agent Robert Clayton Mudd's earlier report in which he indicated that the Monastery of San Girolamo was acting as a haven for Ustashi fugitives, and that he had run an agent into the network smuggling accused Ustashi war criminals out of Croatia. Mudd appeared earlier to be suspicious that Ustashi agents had infiltrated legitimate networks to help refugees, rather than that these networks themselves had been set up in order to smuggle out hunted Ustashi officials. His conclusions in Paragraph 15 remain unchallenged to this day. This is an improved copy of the document originally published :

February 12, 1947
  1. Fr. Krunoslav DRAGANOVIC is a Croatian Catholic priest in the Monastery of San Geronimo, 132 Via Tomacelli. ROME. This man has for some time now been associated with Ustashi elements in Italy and, while in many instances it is hard to distinguish the activity of the Church from the activity of one man whose personal convictions might lie along a certain line, it is fairly evident in the case of Fr. DRAGANOVIC that his sponsorship of the Ustashi cause stems from a deep-rooted conviction that the ideas espoused by this arch-nationalist organization,half logical, half lunatic, are basically sound concepts.
  2. Fr. DRAGANOVIC is a native of TRAVNIK where he finished his elementary and secondary school. Shortly after this he went to SARAJEVO to study theology and philosophy. Here he fell under the personal magnetism of Dr. Ivan SARIC,archbishop of SARAJEVO, whose particular interest he soon became and after graduation he was sent to ROME under the auspices of Dr. SARIC who had some good connections in the Vatican.
  3. Having completed his studies at ROME where he majored in ethnology and Balkan affairs he returned to SARAJEVO where he held various political offices, all of a minor importance.Shortly after the formation of the Independent State of Croatia under Ante PAVELIC in April 1941 DRAGANOVIC became one of the leading figures in the Bureau of Colonization. In the middle of 1943 however he became involved in a disagreement over the relative merits of the younger Eugen KVATERNIK, whom he called a "madman and a lunatic", and he left Croatia and returned to ROME.
  4. According to a reliable informant it is believed that this departure of DRAGANOVIC from Croatia to Italy is a classic example of "kicking a man upstairs" inasmuch as it is fairly well established that the leaders of the Independent State of Croatia expected the prelate, through his good connections in the Vatican, to be instrumental in working out the orientation of Croatia towards the West rather than the East. These same leaders, being occidental-minded and knowing full well that Croatia's militant Catholocism made her a"natural" in such a deal, relied on DRAGANOVIC to assist in their aims. He was eminently unsuccessful.
  5. DRAGANOVIC has a brother still in ZAGREB who is a member of the Napredak Co., who recently was ignored in the elections to determine the members of the Board of Directors. He has another brother, whereabouts unknown, who was a member of the Croatian Embassy in BERLIN. He is in touch with his brother, ZVONKO, in ZAGREB but not with KRESO, whose whereabouts are not definetly known although he has been reported in the British zone in Germany.
  6. About a year ago DRAGANOVIC is alleged in some circles to have somewhat denounced his now ardent pro-Ustashi sentiments during a conference of Croats in ROME. Having been accused by a certain Dr. KLJAKOVIC (apparently a member of the Croat Peasant Party) of being in very close contact with only Ustashi emogrees DRAGANOVIC is said to have replied that if working for an independent Croatia meant being an Ustasha then "I am an Ustasha". "However," he added, "I disassociate myself from all other attributes of the Ustashi."
  7. With this aim in view DRAGANOVIC is working with the Ustashi and also with some leftovers of the Croat Peasant Party in exile. When Milan PRIBANIC, erstwhile Commandant of the Guard of Vlado MACEK, appeared in ROME, he immediately contacted him and thus made his aims and purposes clear to MACEK.
  8. Many of the more prominent Ustashi war criminals and Quislings are living in ROME illegally, many of them under false names. Their cells are still maintained, their papers still published, and their intelligence agencies still in operation. All this activity seems to stem from the Vatican,through the Monastary of San Geronimo to Fermo, the chief Croat Camp in Italy. Chief among the intelligence operatives in the Monastery of San Geronimo appear to be Dr. DRAGANOVIC and Monsignor MADJARAC.
  9. The main messenger between the Vatican, the Monastary and Fermo is an Ustasha student by the name of BRISKI. BRISKI was interned in the 209 POW Camp at AFRAGOLA and was with the Ustashi Cabinet members when their escape was organized from there. His physical description is as follows: 25 years old,medium height, black hair, seen mostly without a hat. Has very bad teeth in upper and lower jaw. Appears to be very wise.
  10. This Agent managed to run a counter-operative into this Monastary to find out if possible if the internal setup of the place was as had been alleged, namely that it was honeycombed with cells of Ustashi operatives. This was established and several things more but operations were stopped abruptly when it became too dangerous for the counter-intelligence agent in the Monastary. The following facts were ascertained:
  11. In order to enter this Monastary one must submit to a personal search for weapons and identification documents,must answer questions as to where he is from, who he is, whom he knows, what is purpose is in the visit, and how he heard about the fact that there were Croats in the Monastary. All doors from one room to another are locked and those that are not have an armed guard in front of them and a pass-word is necessary to go from one room to another. The whole area is guarded by armed Ustashi youths in civilian clothes and the Ustashi salute is exchanged continually.
  12. It was further established that the following prominent ex-Ustashi Ministers are either living in the monastery, or living in the Vatican and attending meetings several times a week at San Girolamo: Ivan DEVCIC, Lt. Colonel VRANCIC, Dr. Vjekoslav, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. TOTH, Dr. Dragutin, Minister of Croat State Treasury. SUSIC, Lovro, Minister of Corporations in Croatian Quisling Government STARCEVIC, Dr. Mile, Croat Minister of Education. RUPCIC, General Dragutin, General of Ustashi Air Force. PERIC, Djordje, Serbian Minster of Propaganda under NEDIC. PECNIKAR, Vilko - Ustasha General and CO of Ustashi Gendarmerie MARKOVIC, Josip, Minister of Transport in Pavelic Government. KREN, Vladimir - Commander-in-Chief of the Croat AirForce.

  1. While this "Croat", directed by this Agent to try to penetrate the Croat intelligence network, was inside the Monastary he personally heard a conversation ensue between this Monsignor MADJERAC and Dr. SUSIC, who, at the time of the conversation, was in the Vatican library. He also heard a conversation between two of the Ustashi in the monastary which established the fact that a brother of Dr. PERIC runs a hotel in ROME, and that often this hotel is visited at night for the purpose of holding important Ustahi conferences. The money for the purchase of the hotel was given this man by his brother, Dr. PERIC.
  2. It was further established that these Croats travel back and forth from the Vatican several times a week in a car with a chauffeur whose license plate bears the two initials CD,"Corpo Diplomatico". It issues forth from the Vatican and discharges its passengers inside the Monastary of San Geronimo. Subject to diplomatic immunity it is impossible to stop the car and discover who are its passengers.
  3. DRAGANOVIC's sponsorship of these Croat Qusilings definitely links him up with the plan of the Vatican to shield these ex-Ustashi nationalists until such time as they are able to procure for them the proper documents to enable them to go to South America. The Vatican, undoubtedly banking on the strong anti-Communist feelings of these men, is endeavoring to infiltrate them into South America in any way possible to counteract the spread of Red doctrine. It has been reliably reported, for example that Dr. VRANCIC has already gone to South America and that Ante PAVELIC and General KREN are scheduled for an early departure to South America through Spain. All these operations are said to have been negotiated by DRAGANOVIC because of his influence in the Vatican.
  4. This agent will continue to make an effort to keep abreast of the situation in this area and also to advise G-2 of any new plans or changes of operations on the part of DRAGANOVIC and his satellites.


Excerpt from the September 5th report, showing that Jesuit trained, Roman Catholic priest Krunoslav Draganovic acquired immigration visas for his Ustashi Nazi terrorists so that they could escape to South America.

Father Krunoslav Draganovic, one of the main operatives on the Ratline, kept detailed lists of the "refugees" granted hospitality and a place of refuge at the monastery of San Girolamo, Rome. Army Counter-Intelligence Corps Agent William Gowen obtained these lists, which included the Ustashi suspects' real names as well as the aliases. After making copies, Gowen wrote up a lengthy memorandum and sent four copies to his superiors. None have ever been found, but one of the agents who received a copy of the list was Naples CIC Agent Robert Clayton Mudd. The following document summarizes Gowen's memorandum and draws attention to several Ustashi war criminals wanted by the Allied authorities on Draganovic's lists. Coming as it does after the famous instructions from Gowen's superiors to keep his "hands off" of Pavelic and other Ustashi leaders in Rome, it is possible to speculate that this report represented the last attempt by CIC agents still "in the dark" of the American plans to rescue Pavelic and Co. to inform their superiors of the vast extent of the Nazi and Ustashi smuggling network that Father Draganovic - and, unknown to Mudd and Gowen, those same superiors - had put into operation.

5 September 1947
SUMMARY OF INFORMATION : SUBJECT: DRAGANOVIC, Krunoslav RE: Documentary Evidence Involving SUBJECT with Ustasha Activity at the San Girolamo Monastery, Rome.
  1. Attached photostats of personal files and documents of the Croat Nationalist priest DRAGANOVIC, Krunoslav procured in Rome indicate clearly his involvement in aiding and abetting the Ustashi to escape into South America. The documents also indicate his connections with Ustasha personnel, a fact which DRAGANOVIC has formally denied personally to this Agent.(Photostats to G 2 TRUST only).
  2. The first list includes the nominal role of all Croats who are fed, clothed, housed and otherwise provided for by the Monastery of San Girolamo, but it also includes the names of several long sought after Jugoslav War Criminals whose presence in the Monastery and whose sponsorship by the Vatican DRAGANOVIC has consistently denied.
  3. The names of the following Ustashi War Criminals are to benoted on this list :DEVCIC, Ivan Serial " 351
DOSEN, Drago " 389
IMPER, Dragutin " 639
JURKOVIC, Blaz " 705
MARKOVIC, Josip " 1018, 1019, and 1020
MAVREK, Stanko " 1062
ORSANIC, Ante " 1176
PAVICIC, Ante " 1208
RUKAVINA, Ante " 1407
SEKULIC, Ivan " 1444
SRNAK, Rudolph " 1484
SREDL, Josip " 1627
VLAHOVIC, Ante " 1773[illegible],
Dusan " 1841
BELOBRAJDIC, Leopold " 109
DJAK, Jakob " 370 (believed to be alias of DJAL, Jakov)BIOSIC, Josip " 136
DOBRENIC, Stjepan " 376
BARANOVIC, Ante " 70
MATAJA, Milan " 10474.
The second series of photostats indicates that DRAGANOVIC and the Monastery were doing their utmost to get immigration visas for Croat sailors in answer to the offers of several Central and South American countries to accept certain specified amounts of qualified sailors and maritime men. However, on this list are known names of compromised people.
  1. The Third List written in Spanish contains the names of 115 Croats with all their personal particulars. These 115 people have all expressed a desire to emigrate to ARGENTINA. It is very possible that this list of individuals have already shipped to the Argentine and it must be assumed that in the majority they are compromised Ustashi personalities with aliases. It seems only reasonable to assume that the more important personages will be, or would have been shipped out first.
  2. Enclosed here with also are the photographs of documents containing the pertinent data on such Ustasha personalities as BARIC, Vice, Kren, Vladimir, alias KRENMIR, Vladimir,BABIC, Ivan, HIBL, Josip alias HUBL, Josip, KAMBER, Dragutin alias KAMBER, Blaz, PAVICIC, Ante alias PAVICIC, Anton,SARIC, Ivan, SUSIC, Lovro alias SUSIC, Marijan, VRANCIC,Vjekoslav alias VRANIC, Petar.
  1. Ref para 3 identification and background of personalities mentioned here are contained in CIC TRUST SOI y-3097 dtd 22 August 1947.
  2. Photostats attached were obtained by Special Agent WILLIAM GOWEN of the Rome CIC Detachment and passed on to this Agent for use and evaluation.
[signed]ROBERT C. MUDD Special Agent, CIC
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2020.09.18 20:43 Kujo17 What is "Patriotic Education "? In response to the impending executive order from trump Jeff Sharlet breaks down what people can expect, and highlights why this is something every American needs to be aware of. To say it's a chilling read, in my opinion , is an understatement.

Jeff Sharlet is a published author, and this post was originally a Twitter thread made by him, the original link can be found here and was converted via ThreadReaderApp- hence the formatting and spelling choices.
"Patriotic education" is Stephen Miller's fascism + Mike Pence's fundamentalism. Some years ago, I took a course in "patriotic education" for my book THE FAMILY. I spent a season reading its textbooks & talking to its teachers. Here's what to expect... A thread.
It'd be cliché to quote Orwell were it not for the fact that fundamentalist intellectuals do so w/ such frequency. At a rally to expose the “myth” of church/state separation Orwell was quoted at me 4 times: "Those who control the past control the future." 2/
1st time I heard Orwell quoted at a patriotic education rally was from William Federer, author of America's God & Country, which then had sold 1/2 mil copies--cherry picked, distorted, & fabricated quotes for students "proving" U.S. founded as Christian nation... 3/
"Patriotic educators" teach that Jefferson's wall of separation between church & state is misunderstood. It was meant as a "one-way wall," Federer claimed, to protect church from state, not the other way around.4/
The first pillar of American fundamentalism is Jesus; the second is history, and in the fundamentalist mind the two are converging. We heard that at the White House "History" conference, the notion we need more Christ in our schools, that our past is Christian... 5/
"Patriotic education" is a fundamentalist concept. Just as fundamentalist religion supposes that divine truths are literal & determined by (white male) authority, so fundamentalist history discards the ongoing work of knowing the past. 6/
"Patriotic education" proposes, as did the White House conference, that the Constitution is divine, "god-breathed," as some say, & thus impervious to expanding ideas of rights. That's the religion behind Clarence Thomas' constitutional "originalism." It's false.7/
Textbooks already written for "patriotic education"--those used in Christian nationalist schooling--emphasize Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which declared “religion” necessary to “good government” & thus to be encouraged through schools. This is cherry picking. 8/
The Christian nationalists aren't wrong that Protestantism was a central part of education for much of U.S. history. It wasn't until the 1930s that public ed veered away from biblical schooling. Because the 1st amendment. Because liberty of conscience. 9/
When I began reading the Christian nationalist school curriculum over a decade ago, it was already being taught to more than 10% of U.S. kids. That number has grown, a lot. It's big enough now to make a bid for control of least some public schools. 10/
The modern Christian Right--without which there would be no Trumpism--began not in national politics but on school boards. Those elections matters. The Right knows that. Those dismissing "patriotic education" as 2020 tactic are themselves ignoring history... 11/
A popular jr. high "patriotic education" textbook begins: "“Who, knowing the facts of our history, can doubt that the U.S has been a thought in the mind of God from all eternity?” Trump, ystrdy: "the fulfillment of a thousand years of Western civilization." 12/
That's from a textbook called "The American Republic for Christian Schools," published by Bob Jones University Press, a major Christian nationalist education publisher. You may remember Bob Jones as the fundamentalist school that banned interracial dating until 2000. 13/
Emphasis at White House history confab on private property. Here's a Christian nationalist high school econ textbook: “One must never come to see... free market as an end in itself. [It] merely sets the stage for an unhindered propagation of the gospel of Jesus Christ.” 14/
"Patriotic education" likely wldn't exist w/out a man named Rousas John Rushdoony--the most radical Christian nationalist & "biblical capitalist" you never heard of. He thought of himself first & foremost as a historian, "correcting" secular, socialist education. 15/
Rushdoony taught the modern pioneers of Christian nationalist ed to teach "providential history," such as the “Protestant Wind” with which it says God helped British defeat Spanish Armada so that the New World would not be overly settled by agents of the Vatican. 16/
Rushdoony also established as bedrock Christian nationalist history idea that secular democracy is defiance of God--that real democracy means submitting to God's will as expressed by his "chosen one," the strongmen He puts in power. Sound familiar? 17/
"History is God's working in man," the director of a popular Christian nationalist education publisher told me. In fact, he preferred to call U.S. history "heritage studies." Trump loves that word, "heritage," too. (Maybe it has something to do w/ the $413 mil he inherited?) 18/
"Heritage studies," or "patriotic education," is a cult of personality. History matters not for its progression of “fact, fact, fact,” Michael McHugh, a pioneer of modern Christian nationalist ed, told me, but for “key personalities.” It's the strongman view of the past. 19/
Trump ystrdy spoke of history as an "unstoppable chain of events"--culminating in him. This isn't a '20 campaign tactic. He's been talking "history" more & more for over a year, chipping away at Rushmore's remaining raw granite to add his name, his "key personality." 20/
Trump doesn't need to know the particulars of Christian nationalist "history" to make it point to him. He surely doesn't know John Witherspoon, the only pastor to sign the declaration, from whom Christian nationalists derive a kind of "democratic" divine right to rule. 21/
Another "key man" already established in the Christian nationalist schooling that's the basis for "patriotic education" is Trump's fave general, MacArthur--fired by Truman for almost sparking WW III. That's who "patriotic ed" wants our boys to be. 22/
If "patriotic education" wants our boys to be "violent men [who] take it by force," as a popular Christian nationalist Bible verse puts it (Matthew 11:12), what does it dream for girls? That they be subject to what Christian nationalists--& Stephen Miller--dub "chivalry." 23/
Another "key man" in "patriotic education" is Sgt. Alvin York, a WW I hero repurposed by Christian nationalism as the greatest Christian sniper in U.S. history. "God uses ordinary people," teaches the lesson. Reminds me of a popular Trump t-shirt I saw reporting ralies... 24/
"Patriotic education" proposes he greatest "key men"--Washington, Lincoln, &, now, Trump--as divine. Popular Christian nationalist art often depicts them attended by a ghostly Christ or angels; & texts offer "proofs" of their chosen-ness. This is also known as "fascism." 25/
During Iraq War, Christian nationalists erected 100s of billboards depicting a U.S. soldier backed by a ghostly Washington. Now it's cops, heroes in nationalist imagination of a new war, backed by angels & patriotic ghosts. 26/
As w/ Texas state legislator other day, "patriotic education" repackages defeats--the Alamo--as victories & men who renounced U.S.--Confed. generals--as American heroes. "America" in nationalist imagination isn't united; it's "red states," it's whatever strongmen say it is. 26/
"Patriotic education" has always meant preparing for war as a lens through which to view world, whether the Civil War then or a prospective one now. "Boys, are you ready for warfare?" asks one homeschooling video, "Putting on the Whole Armor of God." 27/
Such terms come straight outta R.J. Rushdoony. Christian nationalist apologists, "responsible" conservatives, insist Rushdoony was fringe. & yet he was in many ways father of 2 major ideas: Christian homeschooling, & "providential history"--aka modern "patriotic education." 28/
This gets wonky: Rushdoony in turn studied a turn-of-the-century Dutch theologian Abraham Kuyper. Kuyper was complex--but 1st Rushdoony, then Watergate felon Chuck Colson, & now today's Christian nationalists--twist his thought into a proof for nationalist education. 29/
They take Kuyper's idea of "presuppositionalism"--in essence, subjectivity--as proof that neutral governance is impossible. Then they declare that subjectivity an objective "fact" to conclude that govt can only be for God or against him. Trump on Biden: "against God!" 30/
Even tho he was an anti-Catholic Christian nationalist, modern "patriotic ed" pioneer Rushdoony loved JFK's rhetoric for its framing of U.S. as a redeemer nation (JFK: "God's work must be our own.") So, too, QAnon now cherry picks JFK for prophetic proof of Trump's glory. 31/
A big part of my course in "patriotic education," like Christian nationalist education in general, was consumed by Stonewall Jackson--who got more ink in U.S. History For Christian Schools textbook than even Lee, much less Grant (forget all about Douglass).32/
A nationalist magazine called Practical Homeschooling used to (& may still) offer instructions for Stonewall Jackson costumes in honor of his birthday. A text called Stonewall Jackson: The Black Man's Friend is--well, hell, do I need to explain how f'd up that is? 33/
What's up w/ Stonewall Jackson & Christian nationalist education? The modern version partly began w/ him, when Rushdoony discovered a forgotten bio that framed him as fighting NOT for slavery, or the South, but the supposedly Christian ideals of the founders. 34/
Within "patriotic education," Confederate generals like Stonewall Jackson aren't the traitors they objectively were, they're men who transcended partisanship in the service of Christian ideals. Christian nationalists do denounce slavery, too. Lotta cognitive dissonance. 35/
"Cognitive dissonance" is maybe a good place to pause this thread on Christian nationalist roots of Trump's "patriotic education" initiative. My 6th grader's remote classes are over; time for homeschooling. We won't be studying Stonewall Jackson. 37/
submitted by Kujo17 to 2020Reclamation [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 13:02 closeprotections Close Protection London Close Protection Services London

Close protection – is a concept that has been known for ages – it has been with us since early days of humankind and now its condition is more than satisfactory. Since time immemorial, people have tried to protect their wealth, assets, as well as their own health, life, and welfare. By means of the transfer of gathered goods, wealthy individuals have been paying other parties to protect them, their families, and possessions from others. As a general rule, young, notably strong, and grim-looking individuals have been considered perfectly suitable for such a job. The idea behind such a choice has been to scare away a potential adversary by taking advantage of the very looks of the guard. The aforementioned state of affairs has been observed for the consecutive ages. Wealthy landowners and kings created their own trusted guards (in ancient times and during the medieval age, those were troops designated to protect the authorities; later on, they were transformed into elite soldiers). Aside from serving representative and managerial purposes, such individuals were required to take care of their master and his beloved ones. In the 11th century England, during the Battle of Hastings, King Harold assembled a group of troops to protect his life and widely understood health condition. One may consider them to be the ancestors of modern bodyguards. As both civilization and society progressed, there were an increasing number of various organizations and people. Therefore, the risk of attack was significantly higher. Numerous authorities attempted to discourage potential aggressors from committing a crime by introducing severe forms of punishment. It must be noted, however, that there was still the question if it was enough to protect high authorities and the wealthy from the effects of outside attacks. The protection-oriented market has been developing to be – at some point – dominated by professional soldiers. The said progression has made it possible for police officers to investigate and deal with common, less dangerous crimes only. Together with technical revolution and the increasing social awareness, the number of citizens not satisfied with the current order skyrockets. It is likely to cause radical groups aiming at the change of the existing ruling paradigm to occur. This in turn may lead to anarchy and the increase in people willing to put their antisocial theories and plans into effect. The latter may start from sabotaging the work of others and demolishing valuable devices, but it may also end up in killings. If such a thing happens, one may openly talk about terrorism. The unusual social situation boosts the demand for personal protection. Both the army and police focus on securing the wellbeing of those of high position in the country. The rest of the threatened society must protect itself. The demand identified above has given rise to a new profession – a security guard. In the past, it was performed in a more or less organized fashion and that is why the effectiveness of arising task achievement varied. The attempt on Tsar’s Alexander the Second life on 1st March 1881 is a perfect exemplification of the formulated thesis. The ruler in question was attacked by the members of Narodnaya Volya at 2:15 P.M. A bomb was thrown under the carriage, but its explosion did not harm either the tsar or the horses. Alexander the Second, together with his companion including secret police representatives, started to assess damages. It was a mistake. At 2:20 P.M, yet another bomb was detonated. Its accuracy was notably higher as it managed to severely injure the tsar. He died relatively quickly, even with professional care he was under. At this point, it must be indicated that the demand for close protection increases. However, the perception of it is in a significant number of cases rather faulty, leading to pitiful outcomes. As it was hundreds of years earlier, modern people tend to hire grim musclemen to protect them, disregarding the fact that their intellectual level and possessed knowledge are negligible. Formerly, a test had to be passed in order for a person to be considered a bodyguard. Unfortunately, it does not hold true anymore. On numerous occasions, we can observe security guards stylized to look like stats of action movies, with the lack of intelligence written all over their faces. To give them justice, such people may also perform exceptionally well – up to the time they encounter a real attack. Unprofessional guards may be employed to protect rock stars or boxers. Real bodyguards of today are, however, highly skilled and motivated. They are trained to prevent rather than to counteract, as it may be too late in the latter case. Such people are capable of estimating potential risk and juxtaposing it with the resources at their disposal that may minimize it. Modern security guards are physically active, as well as skilled in giving first aid and driving a car defensively. They can fight without using any weapon – especially by taking advantage of psychology and persuasion. Such people are proficient in at least two languages and are characterized by an above-average intelligence level. The described model of a security guard is perfectly suited to current conditions and the needs of individuals hiring them.

VIP close protection over the world – organizations specializing in personal protection. One of the most famous and at the same time – the oldest organized bodies dealing with close protection was created in the 19th century. It was the American United States Secret Service. The USSS was created in 1865 as the US Treasury Law Enforcement Agency. Secret Service is the oldest national agency focusing entirely on investigations. Initially, their only task was to protect the economic structure of the country by means of preventing governmental cheques and bonds from being counterfeited. The mission was followed up to 1901, when president William McKinley was attacked in Buffalo (NY state). The assault resulted in appointing the Secret Service by the US Congress to protect the newly elected president, Theodore Roosevelt. In 1906, the Congress finally adopted the act on the responsibility of the Secret Service for the safety of the White House. Since 1950, the protection has been extended from presidents and first ladies only to vice-presidents as well. Before the murder of John F. Kennedy in 1963 and senator Robert F. Kennedy in 1968, the Secret Service had been a relatively small organization, employing as many as 284 agents. The discussed events translated directly into its rapid development. Currently, it is stated that over 5000 employees work for the Secret Service. Separate branches of the organization are located all over the United States, in Puerto Rico, and in other places all over the world (Paris, Lyon, London, Bonn, Rome, Milano, Hong Kong, Montreal, Lefkosa, Bogota, and Manila). The representatives of the organization are both secret agents (serving protection and investigation-related roles), as well as uniformed units responsible for the safety of the White House and diplomatic outposts. They maintain law and order by means of the network of both foot and motorized patrols, as well as of fixed posts. Such people also support other branches of the Secret Service. A wide scope of professional is also employed therein – those are electronics, engineers, communication experts, protection-related professionals, and IT workers. The Secret Service protects the president with his family, vice-president, elected vice-president, candidates for the said posts (from the 120th day before the elections onwards), former president, his children up to 16, as well as heads of other states staying in the USA in order to realize international missions. The unit of the Secret Service liable for taking care about the safety of the president in the White House fulfills its duties in identical uniforms. Due to the said fact, the Secret Service is sometimes referred to as the Uniformed Division. Its tasks also include the protection of president’s mansions, diplomatic outposts in Washington, and places alike located within the borders of the USA.

Another known formation is the Swiss Guard (Latin: Cohors Helvetica) which was for the very first time gathered on 22nd January 1506 by the then pope – Julius II. Its major aim was to protect the spiritual successor of Saint Peter and his palace. The pope wanted to grant himself protection from the enemies and avoid a political murder. In 1512, the Guard secured Vatican against French soldiers. The Defendants of the Church, as the representatives of the discussed formation were also called, had to face the biggest trail while taking care of pope Clemens VII during the invasion of Roman emperor, Charles V. The boldness, discipline, and resourcefulness of the representatives of the Guard made it possible to save the life of the pope, even though about 600 bold men died in the process. To commemorate the event, a solemn vow of the newly appointed guards takes place every year on 6th May. Each of the Swiss guards-to-be holds a banner in his left hand and raises his right hand with the thumb and two other fingers in an upright position (it is the symbol of the Holy Trinity). Then, the new soldiers promise to protect the pope and – to die in his defense if necessary. The representatives of the Swiss Guard are chosen from men between the age of 19 and 25 living in one of Swiss cantons (basing on contracts with Zurich and Lucerne). Each of them has to be at least 174 cm (5 feet and a half inch) tall and be an unmarried practicing Catholic (according to a special letter issued by the local bishop). Candidates for the service are properly trained, including teaching them how to use firearms, side arms, as well as how to defend themselves and establish proper contacts with other people. One of the items of the list is the proper usage of halberd. Currently, the number of soldiers in the Guard is estimated to circulate around 120, including officers, junior, and senior soldiers. They serve in the formation from two to twenty-five years. It must be also indicated at this point that officers and senior sergeants may be granted by the pope the right to enter into a holy matrimony. Aside from their characteristic outfit, soldiers are additionally equipped with halberds and Renaissance swords – those are the symbols of formation’s tradition. Nowadays, they are also fitted with firearms, tear gas, and excellent communication-oriented devices. With its almost five hundred years of heritage, the Swiss Guard is one of the oldest active defense-oriented groups in the world. One may assume that it will last until Switzerland and the Catholic Church exist.

Yet another example of a close protection-focused formation is the Cedrug Order, the major task of which is to take care about the ruler of Tibet – Dalai Lama. It comprises of national spiritual authorities who organized themselves in a form of an order. Thanks to strict upbringing, their physical strength is much higher than the one of secular officials. Therefore, the former are the most trusted soldiers caring about the safety of the leader of the nation. Cedurg School is located in the left wing of Potala – the palace of Dalai Lama, which is in turn situated in the Holy City of Lhasa (eastern Tibet, Kyitsu river valley). Every Tibet citizen is allowed to enroll to the school, but only chosen ones are granted the privilege to join the Order. For several hundred years, there have been a limited number of monks allowed, namely – 175. Only selected candidates have been worthy enough to defend the powerful Dalai Lama. Those are especially bold, tall, and muscular men. The representatives of the Order earned their name in 1959, when they protected the king of Tibet against Chinese adversaries.

One of the biggest organizations in the world established to consociate and train bodyguards is the International Bodyguard Association (IBA). The IBA was established in 1957 in Paris by major Lucien Victor Ott. Major Ott had been closely connected to the French Foreign Legion in Algeria since his early childhood. He had been born and raised in the said country. In 1947, he joined the French Special Forces and took part in France-Indochina war. Furthermore, he was the participant of the battle of Dien-Bien Phu that ended with the defeat of the French forces. He was being injured and captured by Vietminh. After a bold escape, he decided to join forces with the French Military Intelligence (Deuxieme Bureau). Major Lucien Ott got famous due to, inter alia, perfect securing of president Charles de Gaulle against the OAS terrorist organization. Thanks to him, 30 prepared attacks were foiled, 11 of which were aimed directly at the head of the state. After the death of the creator of a modern bodyguard profile, major Ott, one of his students – James G. Shortt took care of the management of the IBA. As a young man, he had joined a cadet school. Later on, he had become landing operation troops officer and a member of the elite SAS (Special Air Service) unit. Moreover, during his service, he also taught soldiers in Afghanistan the art of Mujahedeen war. Currently, he teaches security guards, police officers, and soldiers all over the world in the IBA branches. The main aim of the organization is to properly prepare bodyguards-to-be to properly perform their duties. It is not an entity employing such individuals, but those who have presented exceptional skills may become members of royal, diplomatic, or personal guards recommended by the IBA. Coaches being the representatives of the organization trained bodyguards in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, as well as helped during the Baltic Crisis between 1989 and 1991. The qualifications of the International Bodyguard Association are exceptional, international, and backed by the documentation concerning the organization of training sessions for the military, governmental authorities, police, and private bodyguards all over the world. Such undertakings have been continuously performed since 1957. The IBA also operates and trains willing individuals in Poland. Its branch was established in the said country in 1992. The basic training offered to candidates includes 60 hours of comprehensive preparation divided into six consecutive days. After its completion, the candidates are required to undergo the so-called refresher once a year. It is one of the conditions of the membership in the IBA.

Another training organization worth mentioning is the ESI - Executive Security International. It must be highlighted that it is one of the biggest and most appreciated American companies oriented towards training personal protection guards. Its second name is as follows: Bodyguard Training Academy for Executive, Dignitary and Celebrity Protection. The ESI was formed at the beginning of the 80s by Bob Duggan – martial arts expert and master in Hwarang Do. Its creation had been preceded by the establishment of the very first bodyguard training program by the Martial Arts Academy in Aspen, Colorado. The ESI, being one of the USA’s private schools, offers its students over 2000 hours of education with regard to protection, investigation, data gathering, company and individual security, etc. The training unit of the organization is situated high up in the mountains and is run by skilled professionals. Fun fact – film writer, Tracy Keenan Wynn, cooperates with the ESI. His preeminent task has been to create scenarios of situational exercises. While writing them, the said individual takes advantage of real life situations and attacks, such as assaults on Aldo Moro, John Paul the Second, kidnapping of Hans Martin Schleyer by the RAF (Red Army Faction), and scenarios alike. The ESI collaborates with corporations operating in the close protection branch of industry, as well as with the police and military. The organized training sessions are top secret. No journalists are allowed to enter the Aspen unit. Due to the fact that the ESI is a private school, it may provide professional training to civil, police-related, and military institutions all over the world.

The citizens of Israel have never had the chance to feel safe in their country. The issue of safety has been always treated seriously there. Aside from a constant Israel-Arab world conflict threat, the Israelis have been the subjects of terrorist attracts, both within the borders of their country and outside it. Jews and Americans are most frequent victims of operations organized by highly skilled terrorist groups. Taking into account the impact the Russian mafia has on Israel, the amount of care put on widely understood safety is fully justified. The Israeli Special Forces protect their citizens by means of intelligence and security-oriented undertakings. They host training sessions in various organizations preparing bodyguards, providing the adepts with the experience gained during the service. Most famous units of the said kind in Israel are undoubtedly the ISA - International Security Academy and the ISS - International Security School.

ISA is an international organization established and managed by former leaders, police instructors, and special service members. The very first unit of the ISA was formed in Latvia as a training and advising agency for both governmental and private security guards belonging to the Baltic States and the countries of the former USSR. The fact that the ISA is not exclusively Israeli in character is proved by the figure of the organization chairman, major Urlich Wegener – the creator and very first leader of German Border Control Service called GSG 9. The team of instructors and coaches also has international roots. The credo of the organization is that the preparation of the individuals for the proper protection of others is the key. Such people have to be offered highest quality training, extensive knowledge, and practical background. The ISS training programs are based predominantly on the experiences gained in Israel and in other countries, as well as while training people for the purpose of protecting VIPs over the world. Individuals, governmental authorities, and large-size corporations have been taking advantage of the services provided by the ISA/ISS.

At the moment, civil bodyguards are also involved in close protection. The safety of the individuals hiring them, as well as their possessions depends highly on the qualifications of the former. Quite frequently, those are former policemen, soldiers, or special force members. However, a number of inexperienced adepts would like to start their adventure with personal protection as well. Are they bound to fail in their attempts? It is not always so. The most crucial component affecting the effectiveness of the training is one’s psychological preparation. It is a commonly known fact that it is exceptional in former police officers and troops. However, it is a common belief that one can be trained how to perform the job of a bodyguard, just as it is possible to teach a person how to shoot or be properly engaged in melee combat. It all depends on one’s motivation and willingness to achieve success in the industry. Regulations to date limit the training process of a security guard to the moment of being awarded with a license. In order to perform his tasks properly, such a person has to constantly improve his skills and qualifications.

Phenomena connected with the need of utilization of close protection techniques – Terrorism/Terrorist. It goes without saying that terrorism is one of the biggest threats of today’s world. While analyzing the severity of attacks and their scale, one should not doubt that VIPs should be at all possible occasions protected against the aforementioned forms of assault. In order to assess the threat a given problem pose, its specificity must be identified at first. The notion of „terrorism” was for the first time in history used during the Conference of the International Criminal Law Association in Brussels, in 1930. To date, there have been approximately 200 various definitions of the phenomenon in question. While trying to grasp its characteristic features, one will face a number of limitations and difficulties. One of statements of historian Walter Laqueur has to be touched upon here. While asked why he has been avoiding formulating an unequivocal definition of terrorism, he replied: „For 50 or so years, people are constantly trying to understand the idea behind terrorism. It is a phenomenon having different forms, depending on its place of origin and epoch. How can one find common ground between Russian revolutionists from the end of the 19th century and Al-Qaida anarchists?

Terrorism is mainly based on the utilization of force or threat in order to achieve political or ideological goals. It is hard to say something beyond that. Terrorism is like pornography – it escapes logical classification, but if one sees it – then it becomes apparent.” It is hard to argue with the statement, as it perfectly shows the complexity of the phenomenon in question. For the purpose of this publication, a strict definition of terrorism is not needed. All that is required is the utterance formulated by Walter Laqueur stating that terrorism can be most fully perceived through its manifestations. Terrorist acts are undoubtedly illegal, as they are based on kidnapping people and forcedly taking control over means of communication, economic sabotage, attacks, robberies, demanding ransom to finance organization’s own activity, posing threat to life, health, and freedom of authorities, and kidnapping people from outside the area in order to gain publicity (especially journalists, priests, voluntary workers). One may also indicate the usage of explosives and firearms in public areas and poisoning certain spots by means of radioactive materials and chemicals. Longin Tadeusz Szmidt additionally pointed out that terrorism has always been strictly connected with crafty and hard to identify methods of killing the leaders of nations. While describing the phenomenon of terrorism as a threat for the protected person, one should also point out and indicate its sources. The following are enumerated: - social and economic sources that are directly connected to economic crises, social tensions, social and national discrimination, as well as with the perception of dissonance between the factual reality and the one presented by the media; - historical and political sources. They have their beginning in severe social reactions, demanding full democratization and respecting human rights; - sociological sources that may be related to the atmosphere typical for a given country or the so-called spirit of violence; - psychological sources stating that a significant part of terrorists is highly mentally unstable which is additionally combined with the overly high self-esteem. When it comes to the area of attack, the following are proposed by the experts: - land terrorism (the major threat area for VIPs and the key one for security guards), - air terrorism (personal protection is then entrusted to the authorities managing planes, airports, etc.), and – maritime terrorism (tasks and responsibilities are then similar to air attacks). While taking into account the type of terroristic activities, one may distinguish: bombing-based, nuclear, biological, chemical, technical, cybernetic (attacks on IT networks), and narcotic-oriented (narcotic cartels undertakings) terrorism. The highest threat for VIPs is undoubtedly the first type, namely – bombing-based one. Close protection-oriented undertakings should therefore incorporate the knowledge on paradigms effective during a bomb attack. They will be discussed in further sections of this publication. It is exceptionally difficult to argue with the thesis that we must be protected against terrorism. The same applies to VIPs. The importance of the latter is also worth discussing, as the threat is much higher when a top authority is attacked than when the assault poses threat to a pop star or a wealthy businessman. However, it does not limit the necessity to analyze and counteract terroristic attack threat. It may directly impact the safety of the person a given security guard is responsible for.

Crime is also one of the issues that may endanger protected VIPs. Up to the beginning of the 80s, Poland had been considered to be one of the safest countries in Europe. Law enforcement bodies had been numerous and properly financed there, and crime forecasting, prevention, and penalizing schemes had met all the European standards. However, at the end of the discussed period, the myth of threat-free Poland started to crumble. The effects of crime fighting scene were becoming gradually more negligible. The said state of affairs was predominantly caused by the decreasing trust in law enforcing organizations, as well as by the rapid increase in crimes committed by the citizens. Another important aspect that must be taken into account were economic and political changes taking place in 1989,the liberalization of economic activity, and the emergence of free market. Some individuals possessed unimaginable riches, whereas others were exceptionally poor. In order to survive till the next day, the latter searched for the answer in crimes, leading to the occurrence of the phenomenon commonly known as organized crime. According to official data from 2001, within the borders of Poland, there were over 400 organized crime groups consociating approximately 45 thousand people. They were generating profits by means of goods smuggling, selling stolen cars, producing and marketing narcotics, counterfeiting national currency, commuting bank frauds, selling firearms, and – what is of exceptional importance from the point of view of VIPs – demanding ransom. Criminals induce fear in the society, especially due to using terror and blackmailing. They do not hesitate to kidnap others or kill them. Such individuals resort to brutal treatment, such as beating, torturing, drowning, etc. All those factors combined directly translate into wealthy representatives of the society feeling threatened. What is more, criminals frequently tend to attack the family of a VIP as well, in order to convince him to perform a given action. Therefore, children, wife, and beloved ones of such an individual must be highly protected.

Popularity/Fame –The threat of attack may be in some cases linked to the popularity of a given human being. When a VIP is in isolation, then he may only receive unwanted phone calls or be nagged by photographers. The problem arises when he has to leave his place of permanent residence or workplace, as well as when he is in a publically accessible place. Danger may still be low, but the inquisitiveness of journalist may quickly become overwhelming. Fans or supporters of a given sportsman or artist may cause havoc in order to touch their idol or get hold of any item belonging to him or her. Of course, there is also the risk of serious injuries or even death (let us take John Lennon as an example) – it cannot be neglected. That is why famous and popular individuals should by all means care about their safety. The matter also concerns politicians who are widely recognizable and controversial. In politics, there are no limitations. Opponents may even resort to killing a representative of the other side to impose his or her right on others. Elected politicians tend to have close protection, but care should be additionally exercised to care about those running in elections. Such VIPs may be ridiculed by the crowd or the opposition (by throwing eggs or pouring water over the candidate), leading to the end of their political career. The role of security guards should in the aforementioned cases not be limited to physical protection only. They must also keep information about VIP’s family, realized projects, and operation profile confidential. The image of a famous person highly depends on the bodyguards being in his immediate surroundings. The manner of their operation, professionalism, and knowledge are top priorities there.

Attack on person – By definition, attack on person is the attempt to kill someone, steal his or her possessions, as well as to kidnap him or her. The criminal action in question has a long history, as assaults have been made throughout the consecutive ages. Their goal has been to achieve a political, economic, or cultural aim. Attacks on person may lead to tremendous changes in the society, which is perfectly depicted by the killing of John Kennedy and Icchak Rabin. In the majority of cases, however, such an attack does not have significantly far-reaching consequences. In order to be effective, bodyguards must answer themselves the following questions – why do criminals attack? How do they attack? How may the assault look like? Therefore, it is highly advised to specify the motif, methods utilized, and consecutive stages of one and every attack on person. Taking into account motifs, one must bear in mind that all the assaults have their agenda. No attack is made voluntarily, without forethought. In the following sections, most common causes of the aforementioned activity are going to be enumerated:

Revolutionary or political ones – organized groups (frequently consisting of fanatics) attack others in order to force the society to change the existing system or overthrow the current government (in the attempt to choose a new one). Their victims are often the authorities ruling the country. The attackers, who follow their revolutionary or political agenda, try to win the sympathy of other representatives of the society. Long before the planned attack itself, they distribute leaflets blaming current rulers for the widespread injustice. According to their belief, the elimination of the elites in power would bring positive outcomes for the whole country. Such an action was performed in Armenia in 1999, where members of the government were shot dead during one of their meetings. The terrorists informed that their death would improve the national situation.

Economic – terrorists claim that their potential victim is responsible for the poor economic condition of the country, company, or a group of people. In the majority of cases, economic attacks take place in countries where there are extreme disproportions between the wealthy and the poor. It must be taken into consideration, however that it is not always the case, as the assessment of the attackers tend to be highly subjective. Quite frequently, the cause of the assault is the personal conviction that the unsatisfying economic condition of the terrorist is the result of actions performed by the victim. It pushes the attacker into thinking that killing him would aid the situation.

Personal – In this case, the wrongdoers are motivated to make an attack due to jealousy, vengeance or other personal causes. Those people in many cases have notable personality disorders, manifesting themselves especially in the inability to control their behavior. The aforementioned state also leads to the failure to distinguish reality from fiction. A perfect exemplification of the motif in question is shooting Zuzanna Leśniak and an artist – Andrzej Zaucha by Yves Goulais in 1991. The trigger there was jealousy.

Ideological – The terrorist is convinced that the victim chosen by him has been threatening the values and principles followed by the attacker. The said rules are often of significant importance for both the group he belongs to and for himself personally. Ideological attacks on a person may be religious or social in character. The first case is oriented towards killing a religious person in the attempt to make it impossible for him to achieve his goals. The second scenario relates to the willingness to eliminate the leader of a given social group. Quite frequently, the additional agenda is to make the organization the terrorist is a part of more memorable and popular in the media. Free publicity is an additional benefit then.

Psychological – The most commonplace group of attacks. Modern psychology claims that every person using firearms, stabbing others with a knife, or taking advantage of explosives has been struggling with mental problems. The motif is of negligible importance, as the attacker may justify his actions with revolutionary, economic, or personal goals, but the fact is that the driving force is the inability to perceive the world correctly. The assassination of Bill Clinton in 1994 illustrates the above bluntly. Francisco Martin Duran stated that he had attacked Clinton to destroy the mist connecting him to an alien entity. Apparently, Duran wanted to eliminate the mist in order to save the world. Attacks considered as crimes may be triggered by a myriad of factors. Among them,there are: - clashes between the representatives of a crime organization, willingness to demonstrate one’s power or threat the victim (attempt to force the latter to pay ransom or forget about debts), - desire to kill suspects that may endanger one’s business, - attempt to exert pressure on certain individuals or to threaten them for their professional achievements (relates to, inter alia, attorneys and tax collectors).

Attack methods to be considered by security guards. Close range attack. It may be performed by means of utilization of: - firearms, - melee weapon (knife, bayonet, dagger), - chemical substance (for example: toxic substance, such as hydrochloric acid). There are no exceptional skills needed to successfully attack a person, as almost everybody can use a knife or a dagger to a satisfactory extent. The same goes with firearms, the utilization of which is as difficult as driving a car. The aforementioned types of weapons can be transported to the place of the assault with ease. The characteristic feature of this attack type is the fact that the wrongdoer is situated maximally several centimeters away from the victim. The difficulty here is directly connected with the inability to improvise the act. It must be preceded by a prolonged observation of the subject, learning his or her customs, daily routine, places he or she visits, and the protection type he or she uses. Only after drawing proper conclusions from the examination, can the terrorist attack the victim. Marek Papała, a police commissioner, was killed due to a close range attack in 1998, Warsaw.

Long-range attack – in this case firearms are often used, especially rifles and carbines. It is not an uncommon situation to learn about an attacker who has used a sniper rifle fitted with professional laser and optical aiming devices. The distance between the wrongdoer and the subject of the attack is commonly higher than 5 meters. The former must also be much more skilled than a close range attacker, as he has to be capable of utilizing a professional gun in an effective manner. The death of John Kennedy in Dallas on 22nd November 1963 was the result of the attack form in question. Lee Harvey Oswald, who was a former marine soldier, shot his subject from a storage located several meters away from president’s cavalcade. To perform the act, he used Mannlicher-Carcano, cal. 6.5 mm rifle. The proficiency of the attacker was proven by the fact that he fired three shots and only one of them missed the target.

Attack with explosives – it requires notable skills, for the wrongdoers has to build a bomb before performing the attack. He must also know how and where to plant the explosive, how to situate the fuse inside and where to detonate it. Such a person also has to be familiar with the effects of explosion. Assault on Margaret Thatcher on 12th October 1984 showed how patient and clever can an attacker taking advantage of explosives be. Patrick Magee, a member of Irish Republican Army, moved into the hotel where the British prime minister was expected to stay 24 days before the said fact. Every single day, he worked meticulously destroying the wall and placing a 50-kilogram explosive inside the hole. The bomb was then fitted with a timer. It exploded when Miss Thatcher was considered to wash herself in the bathroom – the attacker was perfectly acquainted with her customs. She would have died if she had not received a document to be read. The explosive was detonated five floors above the bathroom located in the apartment of the „Iron Lady”. Six other people died as a result, but the suspect managed to avoid the clever assassination.

If you are looking to hire close protection in London do not wait and contact us immiedletly for professional bodyguard services in London.
submitted by closeprotections to u/closeprotections [link] [comments]

2020.09.17 05:20 13thSFGArmA3 [A3] [NA/EST] [Casual Milsim] [Varied Settings] - NCR Fallout Campaign 📷

-The 13th Special Forces Group "The Immortals"-
l Discord:
Looking for a unit where you can expect to be genuinely welcomed and included, rather than treated as a roster filler and ignored? Look no further!
The 13th Special Forces Group is a small community of ArmA 3 players that provide a realistic yet casual ArmA experience. We are comprised of members from varying backgrounds and units, and just seek to have a good time and play the game, without the strict emphasis on Milsim. We mostly specialize in Spec Ops missions, but depending on the mod and scenario, will sometimes perform different roles. Were looking for all kinds of players, with no experience required.
While most of our players live in the U.S. we have players from across the globe who join us.
-When are your OPs?-
Our campaign operations take place every Tuesday and Sunday, usually starting at 7 PM EST and running for about 2 hours, at that particular operations Zeuses discretion. We usually host an unrelated one shot mission on Friday, set in the same modlist just as a different faction. There might be an extra one off for fun, or something of the sorts, occasionally on other days. We also have an ongoing post apocalyptic RP campaign that is played every other Saturday. All events and their times will be posted in our Discord beforehand, to allow our members enough time and notice to get things in order.
-What mod/setting do you specialize in?-
Members of our unit have played them all, but we don't have one set setting. From WW2 all the way to Operation Trebuchet or beyond, no setting is off limits. We will hop from campaign setting to campaign setting, all depending on what our player base wants and votes for. All players are welcome to suggest their ideas and hopes for future missions. Some of our recent ops include
-Fictional U.S. Border war with a militant cartel
-Rhodesian Bush War
13th SFG Ready to Hunt Members of ZANU. 1969, Colorized
I know how to drive. 1970, Colorized.
13th SFG Executes an Ambush Against a ZANLA Convoy. Date Classified, Colorized.
-Modern Day Russian Invasion of Ukraine
13th SFG Night Infiltration.
13th SFG Destroys a Tank Depot.
Debrief After a Tough Fight.
-U.S. Invasion of Italy in 1943
13th SFG Paratroops Await The Fleet After a Night of Hell. 1943, Colorized.
The Fleet Arrives. 1943, colorized.
Cassino Town, With a Custom Zeus Made Monte Cassino in the Distance. 1943, Colorized.
13th SFG Americans, British and Polish After Having Taken the Abbey of Monte Cassino. 1943, Colorized.
13th SFG Victory Parade After Victory in Rome. 1943, Colorized.
-U.S. intervention in Vietnam
13th SFG After a NVA Counter Assault. 1968, Colorized.
13th SFG Heads Up "The Devil's Dirt Road" after a Hellish Patrol. 1968, Colorized.
13th SFG Patrol Reacting to a Call For Aid From A Frontline Unit. 1968, Colorized.
13th SFG Poses For a Picture After a Brutal Night Holding the Line. 1968, Colorized.
13th SFG poses for a picture after defending the last U.S. base in Vietnam. 1970, colorized.
-​Russian invasion of Middle America. (Red Dawn)
13th SFG Members pose for a photo after a successful raid on two Soviet Occupied Towns. 1984.
A 13th SFG member, in a stolen Soviet Ghillie suit, engages targets at a POW camp. 1984.
13th SFG Members driving a stolen Soviet UAZ. Thinking of better times. 1984.
13th SFG Members in stolen Soviet uniforms, after a successful prison break. 1984.
13th SFG Members prepare to land behind Soviet lines and attack a chemical weapons plants. 1984.
13th SFG Members after the chemical weapons plant blows. "Gas, Gas, Gas!" 1984.
13th SFG Members defend a downed Blackhawk in the irradiated wasteland of Omaha, Nebraska. 1984.
-​101st Airborne from D-Day through the end of WW2.
13thSFG members take part in the German Blitzkrieg during the 1939 invasion of Poland during a One Off mission. 1939, Colorized.
13th SFG Members in the "duct-taped together killing machines" as Libyan Desert Taxi Service. 1942, Colorized.
13th SFG Members of the Libyan Desert Taxi Service after taking a German airfield outside of Al Alamein. 1942, Colorized.
13th SFG paratroopers, loaded in C-47s, wait for the go ahead to take off for the long flight to France. The first, and for some, last jump of the war. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG paratroopers lost, trying to figure out where their pilot dropped them on D-Day. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG members bodies, scattered along the beaches of Normandy as the bloody first wave desperately attempts to gain ground on D-Day. 1944, Colorized.
Paratroopers from the 13th SFG rendezvous with American tanks rolling off the beach on D-day. 1944, Colorized.
A stubborn man from Texas, LTC Cole leads the 13th SFG in a charge across a smoke filled field to take out a German encampment. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG soldiers hold Hill 30 from a German counter attacked. Fighting persisted until a runner was able to locate and direct members of the U.S. 2ND Armored Division to relieve them. 1944. Colorized.
A XXX Corp tank cooks off from a single shot from a German Tiger, as members of the 13th SFG look on in horror. 1944, colorized.
13th SFG CO looks on in horror as the crew of the Sherman he was just talking to burns in front of him. 1944, colorized.
13th SFG members rush across the remade Son Bridge during Market Garden. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG forces at Arnham look out across the Rhine, knowing they are surrounded and relief is days away. 1944, Colorized.
Surrounded British forces at Arnham discuss surrender with a German envoy. British commander- "We haven't the proper facilities to take you all prisoner." 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG finds and rescues members of the trapped British 1st Airborne. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG members rushing to eliminate a German artillery position during the Battle of the Bulge. 1944, Colorzied.
13th SFG members on their way to reinforce overwhelmed US positions, knowing they will be surrounded. 1944, Colorized.
13th SFG fighters engage a German ME-109 over the English Channel during a late war bombing mission. 1944, Colorized.
Russian soldiers and a flag bearer pose at the bottom of the Reichstag in Berlin. 1945, Colorized Modern day WW3
CIA kill team in a classified location. 2028.
CIA team, captured, interrogated, and killed on international broadcast. 2028.
Ukrainian National Guard holding out on top of the Vitaly Gregor Regional Hospital as Russian forces surrounded them. These men were all dead within the hour. 2028
13th SFG Vietnam P2 Electric Boogaloo
13th SFG as 1st Infantry patrolling rice fields.
1st Infantry taking a photo after a successful village raid!
Marines take a photo after the battle of Hue City
1st Infantry Squad after a long day of battling and being seperated.
SFG Fallout (Current Setting)
NCR Troopers Poses With A Cult Monument
13th SFG NCR Rangers Clearing A Path For The Rest
13th SFG Patrolling
We're always looking at future settings we would love to have your input on!
-How restrictive/serious are you?-
Overall, we are very casual as a unit. We do have a chain of command, to deal with issues that arise and maintain the server, but the highest a set rank goes in an operation is Squad Lead, with Zeus's acting as platoon lead and command. Our load outs are not restrictive either, the only thing we will restrict you to is to period appropriate pool of weapons, uniforms, etc. so you will have the ability to have a lot of customization for your load outs. We don't have a white-list or restricted mods, because personal choice is important. Want to see more blood from enemies you kill? Turn on a blood mod. Want to turn on JSRS to get a more immersive soundscape? Go ahead. We only ask that you don't put on mods that will hinder the enjoyment of others or give an unfair advantage.
-Is there an attendance or training requirement?-
No, we understand real life comes first. Show up when you can.
We offer training if you need or want it, from a refresher course all the way to specialized squad tactics, weapons training, or anything else ArmA offers, but there is no required training. You don't have to do push-ups and run an obstacle course while a 14 year old makes you call him sir.
-Do you offer anything other than infantry game play?-
While we do not have dedicated slots for pilots, tankers, or others, any member who shows willingness or aptitude is free to take those slots on individual operations where we do have them.
So what are you waiting for? Come join today! Hop in the Discord and ask any questions you have!
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submitted by 13thSFGArmA3 to FindAUnit [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 22:02 FatFreddysCoat The body on Somerton Beach - a body found in 1948 with a mysterious scrap of paper sewn into a secret pocket.

From Smithsonian Mag
Most murders aren’t that difficult to solve. The husband did it. The wife did it. The boyfriend did it, or the ex-boyfriend did. The crimes fit a pattern, the motives are generally clear.
Of course, there are always a handful of cases that don’t fit the template, where the killer is a stranger or the reason for the killing is bizarre. It’s fair to say, however, that nowadays the authorities usually have something to go on. Thanks in part to advances such as DNA technology, the police are seldom baffled anymore.
They certainly were baffled, though, in Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, in December 1948. And the only thing that seems to have changed since then is that a story that began simply—with the discovery of a body on the beach on the first day of that southern summer—has bec0me ever more mysterious. In fact, this case (which remains, theoretically at least, an active investigation) is so opaque that we still do not know the victim’s identity, have no real idea what killed him, and cannot even be certain whether his death was murder or suicide.
What we can say is that the clues in the Somerton Beach mystery (or the enigma of the “Unknown Man,” as it is known Down Under) add up to one of the world’s most perplexing cold cases. It may be the most mysterious of them all.
Let’s start by sketching out the little that is known for certain. At 7 o’clock on the warm evening of Tuesday, November 30, 1948, jeweler John Bain Lyons and his wife went for a stroll on Somerton Beach, a seaside resort a few miles south of Adelaide. As they walked toward Glenelg, they noticed a smartly dressed man lying on the sand, his head propped against a sea wall. He was lolling about 20 yards from them, legs outstretched, feet crossed. As the couple watched, the man extended his right arm upward, then let it fall back to the ground. Lyons thought he might be making a drunken attempt to smoke a cigarette.
Half an hour later, another couple noticed the same man lying in the same position. Looking on him from above, the woman could see that he was immaculately dressed in a suit, with smart new shoes polished to a mirror shine—odd clothing for the beach. He was motionless, his left arm splayed out on the sand. The couple decided that he was simply asleep, his face surrounded by mosquitoes. “He must be dead to the world not to notice them,” the boyfriend joked.
It was not until next morning that it became obvious that the man was not so much dead to the world as actually dead. John Lyons returned from a morning swim to find some people clustered at the seawall where he had seen his “drunk” the previous evening. Walking over, he saw a figure slumped in much the same position, head resting on the seawall, feet crossed. Now, though, the body was cold. There were no marks of any sort of violence. A half-smoked cigarette was lying on the man’s collar, as though it had fallen from his mouth.
The body reached the Royal Adelaide Hospital three hours later. There Dr. John Barkley Bennett put the time of death at no earlier than 2 a.m., noted the likely cause of death as heart failure, and added that he suspected poisoning. The contents of the man’s pockets were spread out on a table: tickets from Adelaide to the beach, a pack of chewing gum, some matches, two combs and a pack of Army Club cigarettes containing seven cigarettes of another, more expensive brand called Kensitas. There was no wallet and no cash, and no ID. None of the man’s clothes bore any name tags—indeed, in all but one case the maker’s label had been carefully snipped away. One trouser pocket had been neatly repaired with an unusual variety of orange thread.
By the time a full autopsy was carried out a day later, the police had already exhausted their best leads as to the dead man’s identity, and the results of the postmortem did little to enlighten them. It revealed that the corpse’s pupils were “smaller” than normal and “unusual,” that a dribble of spittle had run down the side of the man’s mouth as he lay, and that “he was probably unable to swallow it.” His spleen, meanwhile, “was strikingly large and firm, about three times normal size,” and the liver was distended with congested blood.
In the man’s stomach, pathologist John Dwyer found the remains of his last meal—a pasty—and a further quantity of blood. That too suggested poisoning, though there was nothing to show that the poison had been in the food. Now the dead man’s peculiar behavior on the beach—slumping in a suit, raising and dropping his right arm—seemed less like drunkenness than it did a lethal dose of something taking slow effect. But repeated tests on both blood and organs by an expert chemist failed to reveal the faintest trace of a poison. “I was astounded that he found nothing,” Dwyer admitted at the inquest. In fact, no cause of death was found.
The body displayed other peculiarities. The dead man’s calf muscles were high and very well developed; although in his late 40s, he had the legs of an athlete. His toes, meanwhile, were oddly wedge-shaped. One expert who gave evidence at the inquest noted:
I have not seen the tendency of calf muscle so pronounced as in this case…. His feet were rather striking, suggesting—this is my own assumption—that he had been in the habit of wearing high-heeled and pointed shoes.
Perhaps, another expert witness hazarded, the dead man had been a ballet dancer?
The mystery gets stranger after the jump.
All this left the Adelaide coroner, Thomas Cleland, with a real puzzle on his hands. The only practical solution, he was informed by an eminent professor, Sir Cedric Stanton Hicks, was that a very rare poison had been used—one that “decomposed very early after death,” leaving no trace. The only poisons capable of this were so dangerous and deadly that Hicks would not say their names aloud in open court. Instead, he passed Cleland a scrap of paper on which he had written the names of two possible candidates: digitalis and strophanthin. Hicks suspected the latter. Strophanthin is a rare glycoside derived from the seeds of some African plants. Historically, it was used by a little-known Somali tribe to poison arrows.
More baffled than ever now, the police continued their investigation. A full set of fingerprints was taken and circulated throughout Australia—and then throughout the English-speaking world. No one could identify them. People from all over Adelaide were escorted to the mortuary in the hope they could give the corpse a name. Some thought they knew the man from photos published in the newspapers, others were the distraught relatives of missing persons. Not one recognized the body.
By January 11, the South Australia police had investigated and dismissed pretty much every lead they had. The investigation was now widened in an attempt to locate any abandoned personal possessions, perhaps left luggage, that might suggest that the dead man had come from out of state. This meant checking every hotel, dry cleaner, lost property office and railway station for miles around. But it did produce results. On the 12th, detectives sent to the main railway station in Adelaide were shown a brown suitcase that had been deposited in the cloakroom there on November 30.
The suitcase left by the dead man at Adelaide Station – with some of its perplexing contents
The staff could remember nothing about the owner, and the case’s contents were not much more revealing. The case did contain a reel of orange thread identical to that used to repair the dead man’s trousers, but painstaking care had been applied to remove practically every trace of the owner’s identity. The case bore no stickers or markings, and a label had been torn off from one side. The tags were missing from all but three items of the clothing inside; these bore the name “Kean” or “T. Keane,” but it proved impossible to trace anyone of that name, and the police concluded–an Adelaide newspaper reported–that someone “had purposely left them on, knowing that the dead man’s name was not ‘Kean’ or ‘Keane.’ ”
The remainder of the contents were equally inscrutable. There was a stencil kit of the sort “used by the Third Officer on merchant ships responsible for the stenciling of cargo”; a table knife with the haft cut down; and a coat stitched using a feather stitch unknown in Australia. A tailor identified the stitchwork as American in origin, suggesting that the coat, and perhaps its wearer, had traveled during the war years. But searches of shipping and immigration records from across the country again produced no likely leads.
The police had brought in another expert, John Cleland, emeritus professor of pathology at the University of Adelaide, to re-examine the corpse and the dead man’s possessions. In April, four months after the discovery of the body, Cleland’s search produced a final piece of evidence—one that would prove to be the most baffling of all. Cleland discovered a small pocket sewn into the waistband of the dead man’s trousers. Previous examiners had missed it, and several accounts of the case have referred to it as a “secret pocket,” but it seems to have been intended to hold a fob watch. Inside, tightly rolled, was a minute scrap of paper, which, opened up, proved to contain two words, typeset in an elaborate printed script. The phrase read “Tamám Shud.”
The scrap of paper discovered in a concealed pocket in the dead man's trousers. 'Tamám shud' is a Persian phrase; it means 'It is ended.' The words had been torn from a rare New Zealand edition of The Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam.
Frank Kennedy, the police reporter for the Adelaide Advertiser, recognized the words as Persian, and telephoned the police to suggest they obtain a copy of a book of poetry—the Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam. This work, written in the twelfth century, had become popular in Australia during the war years in a much-loved translation by Edward FitzGerald. It existed in numerous editions, but the usual intricate police enquiries to libraries, publishers and bookshops failed to find one that matched the fancy type. At least it was possible, however, to say that the words “Tamám shud” (or “Taman shud,” as several newspapers misprinted it—a mistake perpetuated ever since) did come from Khayyam’s romantic reflections on life and mortality. They were, in fact, the last words in most English translations— not surprisingly, because the phrase means “It is ended.”
Taken at face value, this new clue suggested that the death might be a case of suicide; in fact, the South Australia police never did turn their “missing person” enquiries into a full-blown murder investigation. But the discovery took them no closer to identifying the dead man, and in the meantime his body had begun to decompose. Arrangements were made for a burial, but—conscious that they were disposing of one of the few pieces of evidence they had—the police first had the corpse embalmed, and a cast taken of the head and upper torso. After that, the body was buried, sealed under concrete in a plot of dry ground specifically chosen in case it became necessary to exhume it. As late as 1978, flowers would be found at odd intervals on the grave, but no one could ascertain who had left them there, or why.
The dead man's copy of the Rubaiyat, from a contemporary press photo. No other copy of the book matching this one has ever been located.
In July, fully eight months after the investigation had begun, the search for the right Rubaiyat produced results. On the 23rd, a Glenelg man walked into the Detective Office in Adelaide with a copy of the book and a strange story. Early the previous December, just after the discovery of the unknown body, he had gone for a drive with his brother-in-law in a car he kept parked a few hundred yards from Somerton Beach. The brother-in-law had found a copy of the Rubaiyat lying on the floor by the rear seats. Each man had silently assumed it belonged to the other, and the book had sat in the glove compartment ever since. Alerted by a newspaper article about the search, the two men had gone back to take a closer look. They found that part of the final page had been torn out, together with Khayyam’s final words. They went to the police.
Detective Sergeant Lionel Leane took a close look at the book. Almost at once he found a telephone number penciled on the rear cover; using a magnifying glass, he dimly made out the faint impression of some other letters, written in capitals underneath. Here, at last, was a solid clue to go on.
The phone number was unlisted, but it proved to belong to a young nurse who lived near Somerton Beach. Like the two Glenelg men, she has never been publicly identified—the South Australia police of 1949 were disappointingly willing to protect witnesses embarrassed to be linked to the case—and she is now known only by her nickname, Jestyn. Reluctantly, it seemed (perhaps because she was living with the man who would become her husband), the nurse admitted that she had indeed presented a copy of the Rubaiyat to a man she had known during the war. She gave the detectives his name: Alfred Boxall.
At last the police felt confident that they had solved the mystery. Boxall, surely, was the Unknown Man. Within days they traced his home to Maroubra, New South Wales.
The problem was that Boxall turned out to be still alive, and he still had the copy of the Rubaiyat Jestyn had given him. It bore the nurse’s inscription, but was completely intact. The scrap of paper hidden in the dead man’s pocket must have come from somewhere else.
It might have helped if the South Australia police had felt able to question Jestyn closely, but it is clear that they did not. The gentle probing that the nurse received did yield some intriguing bits of information; interviewed again, she recalled that some time the previous year—she could not be certain of the date—she had come home to be told by neighbors than an unknown man had called and asked for her. And, confronted with the cast of the dead man’s face, Jestyn seemed “completely taken aback, to the point of giving the appearance she was about to faint,” Leane said. She seemed to recognize the man, yet firmly denied that he was anyone she knew.
The code revealed by examination of the dead man's Rubaiyat under ultraviolet light. It has yet to be cracked.
That left the faint impression Sergeant Leane had noticed in the Glenelg Rubaiyat. Examined under ultraviolet light, five lines of jumbled letters could be seen, the second of which had been crossed out. The first three were separated from the last two by a pair of straight lines with an ‘x’ written over them. It seemed that they were some sort of code.
Breaking a code from only a small fragment of text is exceedingly difficult, but the police did their best. They sent the message to Naval Intelligence, home to the finest cipher experts in Australia, and allowed the message to be published in the press. This produced a frenzy of amateur codebreaking, almost all of it worthless, and a message from the Navy concluding that the code appeared unbreakable:
From the manner in which the lines have been represented as being set out in the original, it is evident that the end of each line indicates a break in sense.
There is an insufficient number of letters for definite conclusions to be based on analysis, but the indications together with the acceptance of the above breaks in sense indicate, in so far as can be seen, that the letters do not constitute any kind of simple cipher or code.
The frequency of the occurrence of letters, whilst inconclusive, corresponds more favourably with the table of frequencies of initial letters of words in English than with any other table; accordingly a reasonable explanation would be that the lines are the initial letters of words of a verse of poetry or such like.
And there, to all intents and purposes, the mystery rested. The Australian police never cracked the code or identified the unknown man. Jestyn died a few years ago without revealing why she had seemed likely to faint when confronted with a likeness of the dead man’s face. And when the South Australia coroner published the final results of his investigation in 1958, his report concluded with the admission:
I am unable to say who the deceased was… I am unable to say how he died or what was the cause of death.
In recent years, though, the Tamám Shud case has begun to attract new attention. Amateur sleuths have probed at the loose ends left by the police, solving one or two minor mysteries but often creating new ones in their stead. And two especially persistent investigators—retired Australian policeman Gerry Feltus, author of the only book yet published on the case, and Professor Derek Abbott of the University of Adelaide—have made particularly useful progress. Both freely admit they have not solved mystery—but let’s close by looking briefly at the remaining puzzles and leading theories.
First, the man’s identity remains unknown. It is generally presumed that he was known to Jestyn, and may well have been the man who called at her apartment, but even if he was not, the nurse’s shocked response when confronted with the body cast was telling. Might the solution be found in her activities during World War II? Was she in the habit of presenting men friends with copies of the Rubaiyat, and, if so, might the dead man have been a former boyfriend, or more, whom she did not wish to confess to knowing? Abbott’s researches certainly suggest as much, for he has traced Jestyn’s identity and discovered that she had a son. Minute analysis of the surviving photos of the Unknown Man and Jestyn’s child reveals intriguing similarities. Might the dead man have been the father of the son? If so, could he have killed himself when told he could not see them?
Those who argue against this theory point to the cause of the man’s death. How credible is it, they say, that someone would commit suicide by dosing himself with a poison of real rarity? Digitalis, and even strophanthin, can be had from pharmacies, but never off the shelf—both poisons are muscle relaxants used to treat heart disease. The apparently exotic nature of the death suggests, to these theorists, that the Unknown Man was possibly a spy. Alfred Boxall had worked in intelligence during the war, and the Unknown Man died, after all, at the onset of the Cold War, and at a time when the British rocket testing facility at Woomera, a few hundred miles from Adelaide, was one of the most secret bases in the world. It has even been suggested that poison was administered to him via his tobacco. Might this explain the mystery of why his Army Club pack contained seven Kensitas cigarettes?
Far-fetched as this seems, there are two more genuinely odd things about the mystery of Tamám Shud that point away from anything so mundane as suicide.
The first is the apparent impossibility of locating an exact duplicate of the Rubaiyat handed in to the police in July 1949. Exhaustive enquiries by Gerry Feltus at last tracked down a near-identical version, with the same cover, published by a New Zealand bookstore chain named Whitcombe & Tombs. But it was published in a squarer format.
Add to that one of Derek Abbott’s leads, and the puzzle gets yet more peculiar. Abbott has discovered that at least one other man died in Australia after the war with a copy of Khayyam’s poems close by him. This man’s name was George Marshall, he was a Jewish immigrant from Singapore, and his copy of the Rubaiyat was published in London by Methuen— a seventh edition.
So far, so not especially peculiar. But inquiries to the publisher, and to libraries around the world, suggest that there were never more than five editions of Methuen’s Rubaiyat—which means that Marshall’s seventh edition was as nonexistent as the Unknown Man’s Whitcombe & Tombs appears to be. Might the books not have been books at all, but disguised spy gear of some sort—say one-time code pads?
Which brings us to the final mystery. Going through the police file on the case, Gerry Feltus stumbled across a neglected piece of evidence: a statement, given in 1959, by a man who had been on Somerton Beach. There, on the evening that the Unknown Man expired, and walking toward the spot where his body was found, the witness (a police report stated) “saw a man carrying another on his shoulder, near the water’s edge. He could not describe the man.”
At the time, this did not seem that mysterious; the witness assumed he’d seen somebody carrying a drunken friend. Looked at in the cold light of day, though, it raises questions. After all, none of the people who saw a man lying on the seafront earlier had noticed his face. Might he not have been the Unknown Man at all? Might the body found next morning have been the one seen on the stranger’s shoulder? And, if so, might this conceivably suggest this really was a case involving spies—and murder?
submitted by FatFreddysCoat to UnresolvedMysteries [link] [comments]

2020.09.16 20:15 removalbot 09-16 18:15 - 'Europe is beginning to react to the extraterritoriality of American law. At last!' (self.europe) by /u/Kader_surprise removed from /r/europe within 3-13min

*Automated translation of [an article by Stephane LAUER]1 *
On January 31, Airbus reached an agreement with the National Financial Prosecutor's Office (PNF) in France, the Serious Fraud Office (SFO) in the United Kingdom and the Department of Justice (DOJ) in the United States to conclude nearly four years of investigation into alleged corruption in the context of contracts concluded since 2008. The group will have to pay a fine of 3.6 billion euros to these three authorities - an industry record. But that's not the point. This case marks a crucial step in the way Europeans can protect themselves against the extraterritoriality of U.S. law.
For years, dozens of multinationals have had to comply, without being able to react, with the legislative arsenal put in place by the United States. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA), the Helms-Burton and D'Amato-Kennedy Acts or the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) have been used as weapons of economic warfare to weaken the competitors of American groups, under the guise of fighting corruption, counter-terrorism or security guarantees for the United States. In the case of Airbus, the European aircraft manufacturer was accused, on the one hand, of certain practices consisting of the use of intermediaries, in violation of the FCPA, and, on the other hand, of inaccurate declarations made to the American authorities in the context of the ITAR.
This extraterritorial law makes it possible to apply U.S. laws to foreign persons or companies, provided they have a connection, however tenuous, with the United States. The use of the dollar in a transaction, the existence of a legal entity on U.S. soil, or the simple transit of e-mails through U.S.-based servers are enough for the DOJ to exercise exorbitant powers that are imposed on violators. The ITAR, for its part, gives Washington a right of oversight over the sale of sensitive material, as long as it contains at least one U.S. component. What is striking is that for more than 25 years, the FCPA has been virtually unused. Everything changed with the end of the Cold War between the Soviet bloc and the United States. The latter decided to redirect military intelligence, which had become less crucial, towards economic intelligence, which was to be put at the service of the Doj, responsible for enforcing American law throughout the world.
At the end of the 1990s, American multinationals found it harder and harder to bear being forced to comply with anti-corruption laws when their main European, South American or Asian competitors were not. Believing that a distortion of competition had occurred, they lobbied intensively with OECD member states to ensure that the same rules apply to all in the same way. Since the mid-2000s, the extraterritoriality of American law has become industrialized, mainly to the detriment of Europe, which is considered an easier target than China or Russia. Over the last decade, French companies have paid $14 billion to the American justice system in this context. European groups account for 70% of the total amount of the fines.
Siemens, Technip, Deutsche Telekom, Daimler, Rolls-Royce, Total, BAE, BNP Paribas have thus been under the Caudines forks of the American justice system. The DOJ became rich by collecting colossal fines, while contributing to the weakening of competitors of American companies. In France, the increase in the number of cases has raised awareness of the need to guard against the extraterritoriality of American law. The Alstom affair, with the controversial 2014 takeover of Alstom's energy branch by the American group, General Electric (GE), was, from this point of view, quite emblematic. The energy branch of the French group had been accused of corruption dating back to 2004. Bribes had been paid to Indonesian officials in order to win a contract.
While the company was in the Doj's sights, one of its executives, Frédéric Pierucci, was arrested during a business trip to the United States. The man finds himself at the heart of a judicial imbroglio against the backdrop of the economic war between France and the United States, which will lead him to be imprisoned for two years in the worst conditions. Frédéric Pierucci quickly realized that his arrest was not just a simple incident in the context of an anti-corruption operation. He is convinced that he was instrumental in a case, the ultimate aim of which was to weaken Alstom so that the company could be sold to the American General Electric with the complicity of the American justice system. This transaction was effectively concomitant with the settlement of a fine of more than $772 million to the DOJ.
After Technip and BNP Paribas, Alstom is undoubtedly one case too many for the French government, which complains about the treatment reserved for French companies. Washington could easily reply that, to avoid such inconveniences, all Paris had to do was to set up an anti-corruption system worthy of the name. The law on transparency and the fight against corruption, known as the Sapin 2 law, promulgated in December 2016, was a first response to this concern.
This law makes it possible, as it were, to wash one's dirty laundry with one's family, thus considerably reducing the exposure of French groups to American extraterritoriality. This is what happened with Airbus. By agreeing to collaborate with the French justice system, in conjunction with the SFO and the DOJ, the European aircraft manufacturer, after having denounced itself to the British authorities, avoided criminal proceedings that could have led to a ban on participating in public tenders in the United States or the European Union, a situation that would have mechanically benefited its American rival, Boeing. Although the group had to part with a hundred or so employees involved in the affair and a large part of its management, the worst was avoided.
The formula had been tested in June 2018, when Société Générale, suspected of corruption after transactions with the Libyan sovereign wealth fund, reached an agreement with the DOJ and the PNF using the Judicial Agreement of Public Interest (CJIP), a new procedure allowing it to negotiate a fine without going to trial or going through a "guilty plea" procedure. The CJIP also allowed the PNF to pocket half of the financial penalty, instead of paying the entire amount to the U.S. Treasury. This time, in the Airbus case, the French courts took 60% of the fine, compared to 20% for the SFO and 20% for the DOJ.
This is progress, but the Sapin 2 law is only a defensive response to the problem of extraterritoriality," explains Frédéric Pierucci, founder of d'Ikarian, a consulting firm that advises companies on how to protect themselves from the dangers of extraterritoriality in American law. From now on, an offensive aspect must be adopted, i.e. European countries must also be able to demand sanctions against American companies at fault in order to rebalance the balance of power with the United States. ", he adds. Following the example of the work carried out in competition law, where the EU is now an authority at the global level, including vis-à-vis American multinationals - Europeans must be able to develop their own power of sanction in the field of corruption, by equipping themselves with legal tools of extraterritoriality.
For, to date, one cannot but be struck by the asymmetry of treatment between American companies and their competitors. It would be naïve to think that the former are more virtuous than the latter. In any case, in the United States, convictions are rare. The distribution giant Walmart has nevertheless ended up being caught. Seven years of investigation have uncovered widespread corrupt practices in Brazil, China, India and Mexico. As a result, the group was fined $138 million by the American courts, a ridiculous amount compared to what European groups that engage in such acts can pay.
This asymmetry is found in the aeronautics industry. Prior to the Airbus case, the Brazilian Embraer, in January 2019, shortly after being heavily sanctioned under the FCPA, had to sell its commercial division to Boeing. Since this legislation came into force in 1977, the U.S. group has never been sanctioned. It is high time to rebalance the balance of power by demonstrating a political will that still too often clashes with the particular commercial interests of member states. S.L., February 11, 2020
(1) Stéphane Lauer is a columnist for Le Monde and is the holder of the "Economy" column on the last page. He joined Le Monde in 1994, where he was in charge of the economics department, then created the "Losses & Profits" column before becoming Le Monde's correspondent in New York until 2017. A graduate of the IEP in Toulouse and the Journalism Teaching Center in Strasbourg, he holds a Master's degree in International Relations from the University of Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne. He is also the author of "Renault, a French Revolution" (JC.Lattès, 2005).
[link]2 (free version)
Europe is beginning to react to the extraterritoriality of American law. At last!
Go1dfish undelete link
unreddit undelete link
Author: Kader_surprise
1: *eopo*e*.f?L**u*ope**ommence*a**eagir*a-l-E*TRATE**ITORIA*I**-du-*roit-*m*rica*n-Enfin-P*r 2: Translated with
Unknown links are censored to prevent spreading illicit content.
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2020.09.16 14:00 cincbus Introducing: The Norwegian Royal Family

Royal Family Instagram
Crown Princess Mette Marit Instagram
Princess Martha Louise Instagram
Princess Martha Louise Instagram #2 (I believe she was asked to no longer use the Princess title)
King Harald V (b. 1937)
Ascended the throne in 1991 after the death of his father, King Olav V. He was the third child of the King, however his older siblings were both females. At the time of his birth he was 16th in line to the British throne as a descendant of Queen Victoria. He spent part of his childhood in Sweden and the US after his family went into exile during WW2.
Harald has executive power granted to him by the constitution, however he is not politically responsible for exercising it. His acts must be countersigned with a member of the Council of State (generally the Prime Minister). He also has the power of veto, however no Norwegian King has exercised it since the dissolution of union of Sweden in 1905.
Interesting Facts:
Represented Sweden in the 1964, 1968, and 1972 Olympic Games in the sport of sailing.
Marriage: Harald married commoner Sonja Haraldsen in 1968. They dated (in secret!) for 9 years prior because his father, King Olav, would not allow him to marry a commoner. Olav only relented when Harald told him he would remain unmarried for his lifetime unless he was allowed to marry Sonja. They met at a dinner party.
See photos from their wedding here:.
As part of his official visit to Washington and Alaska in May, His Majesty King Harald V of Norway spoke at Pacific Lutheran University’s Commencement ceremony, where he received a Doctor of Laws jure dignitatis.
Gave a speech that publicly supported LGTBQ+
Queen Sonja (b. 1937)
Born to a clothing merchant in Oslo. She received a diploma in dressmaking and tailoring as well as a degree from finishing school. She also attended the University of Oslo receiving a degree in French, English, and Art History.
One of my favorite photos of the Queen at age 33.
A fun article on Sonja and her love of art
Listen to an interview with Sonja (in English)
Crown Prince Haakon (b. 1973)
CP Haakon is heir apparent to the throne of Norway although he has an older sister, Princess Martha Louise. He has served in the Royal Norwegian Navy, attended classes at the University of Oslo, and completed his education in development studies at the London School of Economics.
Married Crown Princess Mette-Marit, a commoner, in 2001. Then a single mother, Mette-Marit had a known “party” background that included involvement in the rave scene in Oslo, which included a significant drug-subculture. Additionally, the father of her child, Marius, had prior convictions of drug-related offenses.
The Norwegian people were unhappy with CP Haakon’s choice of bride. Many Norwegian conservatives were also upset with the pair when it was made public that they were living together before their marriage. In a heartfelt press conference before their wedding, a tearful Mette-Marit explained her past and apologized for her youthful rebelliousness.
Quotes from her press conference:
“My youthful rebellion went further than it did for others, and I learnt some hard lessons.” The single mother has what has been described as “a colourful past in Oslo’s famously drug-ridden ‘house party’ scene.”
“We tested the limits. It has taken time for me to deal with this. I know it has been difficult for many people. It has been difficult for me. But I can’t make those choices over again, even if I could wish that that were possible.”
The Crown Prince told the assembled media that the Royal Family had spent time discussing how the questions around his future wife’s past should be dealt with before she brought up the issue herself. “What we shared was so important that I could not let it go,” said the heir to the Norwegian throne about his decision to marry Mette-Marit. “I think that together we are stronger than I am by myself.”
The couple also talked about how both of their mothers were giving lots of marriage advice, and about Mette-Marit’s four-year-old son Marius, who will be a page boy at Saturday’s nuptials. “I think he thinks that he is getting married as well,” commented his mother fondly.
See photos from their wedding (including some of your other favorite royals!) here.
Watch their wedding: Mette-Marit appeared to weep throughout much of their wedding.
Watch a speech from Haakon (in English!)
Crown Princess Mette-Marit (b. 1973)
Mette-Marit was born in Norway. Her father was a reported alcoholic who, once his daughter’s relationship with the Crown Prince was public, was paid up to $45,000 USD annually by a magazine to share private information and photos of his daughter. His relationship with MM was strained, however they reportedly reconciled sometime before his death in 2007.
She completed her high school education before taking preparatory college courses at Agder College. She then worked as a waitress in Oslo before meeting the Crown Prince at a party during Quart Festival, Norway’s largest music festival. Years later, after becoming a single mother, she met Haakon again and their relationship began. Since becoming Crown Princess, MM has taken several college course and completed a master’s degree in Executive Management.
In 2018 it was announced that MM had been diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis, which will limit her official duties.
Watch a speech (in English) from MM.
Princess Ingrid Alexandra (b. 2004)
The Constitution of Norway was altered in 1990 to introduce absolute primogeniture, meaning the crown will pass to the eldest child regardless of sex. It was not considered retroactive, however, thus Crown Prince Haakon remains the heir ahead of his elder sister Martha Louise. As a result, Princess Ingrid Alexandra will become the country’s second female monarch behind Queen Margaret, who reigned over Norway, Denmark, and Sweden from 1380-1412.
Her godparents include Crown Prince Fred of Denmark, Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, and the King of Spain. She was a bridesmaid in Victoria’s wedding – see a photo of her and fellow future queen Catharina-Amalia of the Netherlands here.
Ingrid is second in line to the throne behind her Father, Crown Prince Haakon.
Prince Sverre Magnus (b. 2005)
Known for dabbing on the royal balcony.
He was confirmed in Asker church earlier this month.
Marius Borg Hoiby (b. 1997)
Marius is the son of CP Mette Marit from a prior relationship. Marius is not a working member of the royal family. He does not hold a title and does not appear in official portraits.
On January 10, 2017 (shortly before his 20th birthday), Crown Princess Mette-Marit posted an open letter on the royal family's website, asking the press to let her son get peace, as he is not a public person or wants a life in the public light. "Marius does not want to live a life in public. My commitment to him as a mother is to take the responsibility that was given me at Aker Hospital 20 years ago seriously,” she wrote, before asking some Norwegian media to let him drop from their radar “as he wants, when he now partly for that reason chose to go abroad to study.”
You can follow him on Instagram here:
Princess Martha Louise (b. 1971)
Princess Martha Louise is the eldest child of the King and Queen, however due to Norway’s then-agnatic primogeniture rules she was replaced in the line of succession by her younger brother, Haakon.
Princess Märtha Louise is a certified physiotherapist following education in Oslo and internship in the Netherlands. She has not practiced her profession, however, choosing instead, from her fascination in traditional Norwegian folk tales as well as a love of music, to establish her own commercial entertainment business based on giving public and televised performances reciting folk tales and singing with well-known Norwegian choirs.
After studying physiotherapy at an academy for holistic medicine, she decided to open her own business in 2002. The King, after consulting her, issued a royal edict which removed Princess Märtha Louise's style of Royal Highness (she is conventionally accorded the lesser style Highness abroad, although this style has no legal standing in Norway), in order to provide her freedom from her constitutional role as a princess.
She claims she can communicate with animals and angels and started an alternative therapy center named Astarte Education. Founded as Astarte Education in 2007 and dubbed an “angel school,” the company changed its name to “Soulspring” three years ago. The school offered classes in “healing, reading and touching,” and various treatments and therapies aimed at teaching clients “how to find yourself.” The school closed in 2018 due to financial issues.
Marriage: Married commoner Ari Behn, an author, in 2002 and they divorced in 2017. He passed away from suicide last year. Together they have 3 children:
Maud Angelica Behn (b. 2003)
Leah Isadora Behn (b. 2005)
Emma Tallulah Behn (b. 2008)
See photos from their wedding here.
Current Relationship: Is in a relationship with an American citizen, a shaman named Durek Verrett. Durek claims to be able to aid in the recovery from illnesses such as cancer and leukemia, however faces a lot of scrutiny from the Norwegian public, often being called a “conman”.
You can read more about him here.
Read more about their relationship here.
Durek and Martha Louise now hold seminars and workshops in Norway titled “The Princess and the Shaman”, which promise to take attendees “on a self-discovery into wisdoms to reveal to you your divine self activated”.
HH Princess Astrid (b. 1932)
Sister to the King. After the death of their mother died, Astried (then 22) was the senior lady of the court and acted as first lady of Norway for her father.
Like her brother, Astrid married a commoner. They had five children together and he passed away in 2015. You can read about their wedding here.
The Princess still takes on some official duties on behalf of the Royal Family. According to one article I read, she is well-liked by the Norwegian people and considered to be funny, friendly, and unpretentious.
Interesting Fact: One of her godmothers is Queen Elizabeth of England.
Like their Swedish counterparts, the Norwegians play a role in the Nobel ceremonies. The Peace Prize is handed out in Oslo in the presence of the monarch, however it is a much more muted affair than the Swedes. No tiaras are at this event ☹
The Norwegians have an interesting collection of tiaras at their disposal. Check out their collection here:
Royal Family v Royal House
The Norwegians have a clear distinction between the two. The Royal House (kongeheset) is the King and Queen, CP Haakon and CP Mette Marit, and their daughter, Ingrid Alexandra.
The Royal Family includes all of the monarch’s children and their spouses, grandchildren, and siblings.
See a photo of the family here:
Have anything to add? Want to add your favorite photo or event? Feel free to do so in the comments :)
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2020.09.15 11:02 CriticalComputer2499 Sharepoint Excel file shows different time format for different users

Hello dudes/dudettes,
I am using an Excel file hosted on Sharepoint and another user has the same file on their local machine but which is synched to the file hosted on Sharepoint. So for example, any change on the Sharepoint Excel file is reflected on the file on the local machine.
Now, the problem is that columns with date entries appear in the American format in Sharepoint and for the other person, it appears in the British format. I don't understand why this is happening and I'd like to set my date columns to be universally in the British format in Sharepoint.
Please help.
submitted by CriticalComputer2499 to sharepoint [link] [comments]

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submitted by SuperHotUKDeals to HotUKGamingDeals [link] [comments]

2020.09.14 23:27 ar_david_hh Sep/14/2020: \\ election fraud: BHK's factory \\ Kocharyan & $600m \\ foreign affairs: USA, RUS, AZE events, shots fired \\ economic freedom index \\ parliament grills wannabe judges \\ berries (lol) \\ music & culture \\ COVID \\ school begins \\ infrastructure \\ Yerevan's metro, buses, elevators

new election fraud charges against BHK / Cement factory

BHK party leaders were earlier charged with buying voters during the 2017 elections.
The new report says: // during the 2012 and 2017 elections, the employees of [Gagik Tsarukyan's] AraratCement factory were threatened with termination unless they joined the BHK party and recruited voters. Some of them paid bribes to residents. //
A felony case is launched. More info is being gathered.

Robik Kocharyan's "$600 million investment in Russian company" / April 2016

Parliamentary security committee chief Andranik K. says they gathered 800 pages of facts about April 2016 battles. The investigation of the former government's handling of the job is over and will be finalized this month. The Parliament will then decide how to publish it.
Andranik K. continues: // Robert Kocharyan is successfully preventing the March 1st trial from entering the main fact-presentation stage. They're manipulating the court to delay the process.
When Kocharyan said he didn't have the $2m bail to get out, various oligarchs agreed to help him.
One of the donors was [Russian tech giant] SISTEMA's director Yevtushenko. Kocharyan has been a SISTEMA board member for years, which means he must have had his "share". The public needs to know these details.
Years earlier, Garnik Margaryan revealed that the Kocharyan family invested $600m in SISTEMA. It was not denied. There were overwhelming facts. Garnik Margaryan was later arrested and released.
We need to know where that $600m came from and how they were invested in SISTEMA. The March 1st court recently agreed to discuss Kocharyan's finances, but behind closed doors, which prevented the public from knowing details. //

19 years ago today...

Vladimir Putin arrived in Armenia to discuss Kocharyan's plan to give Russia/Russian companies some of the Armenian infrastructures in exchange for debt cancellation. The first deal was worth $100m.

Don't miss Sunday news

Ինչպես պապն էր ասում ՝ գիրք չկարդացողը շան տղայա:

Armenia-U.S. relations

"Armenian-American Strategic Dialogue" is a new cooperation initiative that began in 2019. Its second session was held today. The two countries will outline new priorities for cooperation.
Justice Minister Badasyan discussed the anti-corruption and police reforms with the U.S. ambassador.

Armenia-Russia relations

AM-RU soldiers used radio-electronic weapons to shut down "enemy drones" during a joint military drill.
"Shikla" units were used to locate and destroy the "drones" by using 23mm automatic guns, within 2.5km distance, and 1.5km altitude.
1,500 soldiers participated in drills which involved SU-25 jets and helicopters.
A group of Armenian soldiers flew to Russia to participate in the upcoming Caucasus-2020 military drills.

Armenia-Egypt relations

MFA Mnatsakanyan visited Egypt, met their President and MFA, and discussed Turkey's destabilizing actions in the eastern Mediterranean and Caucasus.
"We have strong relations with Egypt dating back to centuries. Armenians living in Egypt are allowed to preserve their culture and language. They've made significant contributions towards the formation of Egyptian institutes."
Context: Greece and Egypt recently signed a maritime deal which angered Turkey.
"Armenia's goal is to provide physical security for Nagorno Karabakh population and to help with recognition of their right to self-determination."

shots fired at the border

Armenian army fired shots to stop the Azeri army from conducting engineering work aimed at strengthening trenches. The army denied the Azeri govt's claims that the shots were fired at Azeri Aliyebli village.

Azerbaijani government

... isn't happy that several Lebanese-Armenians settled in the Artsakh Republic. They contacted international bodies and OSCE.

Azerbaijani minorities

An ethnic Avar activist complained about ethnic discrimination by Azeri authorities. "They are stopping Avars for no reason and extorting more bribes than they do from ethnic Azeris. They won't let Avars start a business and have a normal life in [Azerbaijan's northern] Balakan region. We ask [international leaders] for help. We don't want conflict but they are leaving no choice."

Azerbaijani air traffic control

... prohibited two Russian military planes from using Azeri airs to move back from Syria to Russia. The Russian planed had to divert and use Turkmen territories.

economic freedom index

Canadian Fraser ranks Armenia 18th out of 162 in terms of economic freedoms. It's up 9 positions from last time.
Hong Kong 1, Georgia 8, Armenia 18, Moldova 78, Azerbaijan 112, Venezuela 162.

Parliament is Q&A-ing Constitutional Court nominees

Context: Constitutional Court has 3 vacant seats. The govt, the president, and the judicial branch have each nominated one candidate, who need to go through a Parliamentary Q&A and a secret-ballot vote before approval.
Opposition BHK and LHK will boycott the election process because they opposed the initial process that kicked out the 3 old judges and demoted HHK's Hrayr Tovmasyan. They also complained that none of the candidates met them one-on-one for talks.
The Q&A and appointment process will be monitored by the OSCE Human Rights division in cooperation with the Armenian HR Ombudsman.
The first candidate for Q&A is Yervand Khundukyan, nominated by the judicial branch. He was introduced to Parliament by a fellow judge.
The candidate said he doesn't support the proposed idea of merging the Constitutional Court with the Cassations Court.
"We the judges are generally conservative towards such changes. I'm against major reorganizations. The role of CC and Cassations currently differ from one another."
He wants CC to have more independent powers over interpreting constitutional norms, while at the same time to give Parliament the right to "respond" if CC rules something unconstitutional.
He was asked about his past activities and his role in the shutting down of opposition A1+ media outlet during the former regime.
During another Q&A session, Ind. MP Babajanyan got into a heated argument with the candidate and accused him of being generally "intolerant".
There were also personal questions about his sons' alleged "preferential" treatment in the military. He denied preferential treatment, saying the location of his son's service was chosen through the regular lottery system.
Meanwhile, the Corruption Prevention Commission will be vetting his past activities.
NGO chief Arthur Sakunts criticized the judicial branches' nominee, saying he has a questionable past and had 13 of his verdicts overruled by ECHR in the past.
"At one point Pashinyan said any judge who had a verdict overruled by ECHR should automatically resign. If this nominee is approved, it'll be a step backward from revolution's spirit."
The second candidate is Arthur Vagharshyan, nominated by president Sarkissian. He was presented to Parliament by the president's aide.
When asked to comment LHK's complaints that he didn't meet LHK for discussions, he said he wasn't aware that it was him who had to initiate such conversation. "Had I known that LHK wanted to talk, I would have contacted them."
The third candidate is Edgar Shatiryan, nominated by the government. He was presented to Parliament by Justice Minister for Q&A.

the world is stress-eating berries and pumpkin

Pashinyan: the exports of strawberries, blackberry, and currant (հաղարջ) has increased by 166% during the pandemic, reaching $5.5m turnover.
It's important to note that it's mostly produced in greenhouses which helps to develop that industry and make us less dependent on weather conditions.
The farmer doesn't have to wait to find out the size of the harvest. It's "you harvest what you plant".
Similarly, the exports of mushroom, pumpkin and spinach grew 62%, reaching $3.2m.
Flower exports rose 17%, reaching $3.9m.

the world is producing music during the pandemic

Composer Tigran Mansuryan wrote two pieces during COVID. It'll be presented to the audience soon. The orchestra plans 50 performances dedicated to its 15th anniversary.
One of the new pieces, called "the sound of silence" is about the pandemic, and was written at the request of a German musician who launched an initiative to ask musicians around the world to compose a piece relevant to current times.

the organizers of Dilijan concert won't be penalized

The new Quarantine rules are laxer and allow up to 60 people at a commercial concert. The police say yesterday's Dilijan concert met the requirements. Patrons wore masks, had their temperatures taken, etc.
Prime Minister's office criticized the police's decision, saying "you and I both saw that the safety measures weren't respected."

fight in Gyumri

Presumably a mask-related confrontation between the police and Gyumri resident let to a scuffle. Arms were twisted. A woman laid on the police vehicle to prevent it from leaving with the detainee.

Russian Airoflot will resume flights to Armenia

on October 25th

schools resume after a lengthy pandemic break

The Emergency ended a few days ago and was replaced with less strict "Quarantine" which allows schools to operate under strict safety conditions.
Only first-graders were allowed to attend today, to prevent overcrowding. The rest will go tomorrow.
Thousands of teachers and students with chronic health problems will continue with online education.

new schools are being built

21 new preschools will open across Armenia on September 21st, says Education Ministry. The rural facilities will come equipped with the necessary furniture.
It is co-funded by the World Bank. 136 such facilities have been built since 2019.

Infrastructure upgrades across Armenia

5 more seismic-proof schools were rebuilt across Armenia.
Madina, Gegharquniq will have two subsidized projects to install lighting on all streets and to build an irrigation network.
Chkalovka, Gegharquniq will have several streets and parks renovated by the end of this year, for the first time since the 1980s.
Azatan's main road is being renovated. It connects to the M1 highway.

NSS busts Gyumri officials with corruption

The NSS says: we found corruption in city-run "Yuri Vardanyan Sports Center" and "Hamalir Youth Sports Center".
Officials from these organizations hired 24 fake employees beginning in 2010 and embezzled $89,000 in salaries.
A felony cause is launched.

Yerevan replaces more Soviet-era elevators

... in apartment complexes around the capital. 134 out of 3,500 have been replaced. 370 more this year.
"For comparison, only 20 were replaced in the period between Armenia's independence and 2018," flexed Municipality spokesman.

Yerevan could reform its architecture department

Mayor Marutyan says they're thinking about abolishing the position of "chief Yerevan architect" to replace it with some kind of a committee.
Recently the chief architect Arthur Meschyan resigned after promising in 2018 to serve only two years.

Yerevan's upcoming new 12-meter long buses...

... need to be purchased through an auction. None of the sellers met the requirement. A new auction will be held to buy the 100 buses.
As for the auction for the other 100 mini-buses, there is already a winner. Buses will arrive in 3 months.
There are also plans to buy medium-sized 9-meter buses.

update: Yerevan's new metro station

Last month we learned that Mayor Marutyan scrapped the plans to have a private company built a bridge then a separate metro station with malls on top. Instead, the city plans to use public funds to pay a lot less and build a bridge with a metro station on top.
Today Marutyan confirmed that they discussed it with the federal government and decided that public funds will be used. It'll cost $35m for the feds. "The government has reassured that they have the money," said Marutyan.

President Sarkissian met the British Science Association director..

... Lord Ara Darzi, an ethnic Armenian and a child of the Genocide survivor. Ara became the director last week. The two discussed Sarkissian's ATOM scientific initiative and possible cooperation in a program related to artificial intelligence.
Sarkissian then visited Cambridge's science center to eat free pizza because someone was doing a generous giveaway this sentence is fake news designed to test if you're still reading.

How this village in Armenia is keeping a 5000-year-old cheese-making tradition alive

Grandmaster Levon Aronyan

Finished third in the online Champions Showdown: Chess 9LX competition held yesterday.
He scored 5.5 out of 9 after tying with Magnus and Kasparov but losing to Lagrave.

Exhibition dedicated to composer Komitas

... was launched in the Romanian city of Georgen, aided by local officials and the Armenian community.
You've read 2044 words. 2044 is when we'll finally have flying cars.

Disclaimer & Terminology

1) The accused are innocent until proven guilty in the court of law, even if they sound guilty.
2) Currency in Armenian ֏ unless specified otherwise.
3) NSS/SIS/SOC = law enforcement agencies. QP = Civil Contract Party. LHK = Bright Armenia Party. BHK = Prosperous Armenia Party. HHK = Republican Party. ARF = Armenian Revolutionary Federation Party
4) ARCHIVE of older posts by Idontknowmuch: PART 1 ; PART 2 ; PART 3 ; PART 4 ; PART 5.
5) ARCHIVE of older posts by Armeniapedia.
submitted by ar_david_hh to armenia [link] [comments]

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